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Prevalence and Diversity of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in Eastern National Parks.

Abstract Tick-borne pathogens transmitted by Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae), also known as the deer tick or blacklegged tick, are increasing in incidence and geographic distribution in the United States. We examined the risk of tick-borne disease exposure in 9 national parks across six Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States and the District of Columbia in 2014 and 2015. To assess the recreational risk to park visitors, we sampled for ticks along frequently used trails and calculated the density of I. scapularis nymphs (DON) and the density of infected nymphs (DIN). We determined the nymphal infection prevalence of I. scapularis with a suite of tick-borne pathogens including Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia miyamotoi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti Ixodes scapularis nymphs were found in all national park units; DON ranged from 0.40 to 13.73 nymphs per 100 m(2) Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, was found at all sites where I. scapularis was documented; DIN with B. burgdorferi ranged from 0.06 to 5.71 nymphs per 100 m(2) Borrelia miyamotoi and A. phagocytophilum were documented at 60% and 70% of the parks, respectively, while Ba. microti occurred at just 20% of the parks. Ixodes scapularis is well established across much of the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States, and our results are generally consistent with previous studies conducted near the areas we sampled. Newly established I. scapularis populations were documented in two locations: Washington, D.C. (Rock Creek Park) and Greene County, Virginia (Shenandoah National Park). This research demonstrates the potential risk of tick-borne pathogen exposure in national parks and can be used to educate park visitors about the importance of preventative actions to minimize tick exposure.
PMID
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Prevalence Rates of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), and Babesia microti (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae) in Host-Seeking Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) from Pennsylvania.

Authors

Mayor MeshTerms
Keywords

Borrelia burgdorferi

Ixodes scapularis

recreational exposure

tick-borne disease

Journal Title journal of medical entomology
Publication Year Start




PMID- 28028138
OWN - NLM
STAT- Publisher
DA  - 20161228
LR  - 20161229
IS  - 1938-2928 (Electronic)
IS  - 0022-2585 (Linking)
DP  - 2016 Dec 27
TI  - Prevalence and Diversity of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Nymphal Ixodes scapularis
      (Acari: Ixodidae) in Eastern National Parks.
LID - tjw213 [pii]
LID - 10.1093/jme/tjw213 [doi]
AB  - Tick-borne pathogens transmitted by Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae), also
      known as the deer tick or blacklegged tick, are increasing in incidence and
      geographic distribution in the United States. We examined the risk of tick-borne 
      disease exposure in 9 national parks across six Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic
      States and the District of Columbia in 2014 and 2015. To assess the recreational 
      risk to park visitors, we sampled for ticks along frequently used trails and
      calculated the density of I. scapularis nymphs (DON) and the density of infected 
      nymphs (DIN). We determined the nymphal infection prevalence of I. scapularis
      with a suite of tick-borne pathogens including Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia
      miyamotoi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti Ixodes scapularis
      nymphs were found in all national park units; DON ranged from 0.40 to 13.73
      nymphs per 100 m2 Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, was 
      found at all sites where I. scapularis was documented; DIN with B. burgdorferi
      ranged from 0.06 to 5.71 nymphs per 100 m2 Borrelia miyamotoi and A.
      phagocytophilum were documented at 60% and 70% of the parks, respectively, while 
      Ba. microti occurred at just 20% of the parks. Ixodes scapularis is well
      established across much of the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States, and our
      results are generally consistent with previous studies conducted near the areas
      we sampled. Newly established I. scapularis populations were documented in two
      locations: Washington, D.C. (Rock Creek Park) and Greene County, Virginia
      (Shenandoah National Park). This research demonstrates the potential risk of
      tick-borne pathogen exposure in national parks and can be used to educate park
      visitors about the importance of preventative actions to minimize tick exposure.
CI  - Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of
      America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the
      public domain in the US.
FAU - Johnson, Tammi L
AU  - Johnson TL
AD  - Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for
      Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and
      Prevention, 3156 Rampart Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80521 ([email protected]; [email protected];
      [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected])
      [email protected]
FAU - Graham, Christine B
AU  - Graham CB
AD  - Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for
      Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and
      Prevention, 3156 Rampart Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80521 ([email protected]; [email protected];
      [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]).
FAU - Boegler, Karen A
AU  - Boegler KA
AD  - Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for
      Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and
      Prevention, 3156 Rampart Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80521 ([email protected]; [email protected];
      [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]).
FAU - Cherry, Cara C
AU  - Cherry CC
AD  - Biological Resources Division, Wildlife Health Branch and Office of Public
      Health, National Park Service, 1201 Oakridge Dr., Suite 200, Fort Collins, CO
      80525 ([email protected]; [email protected]).
AD  - Epidemic Intelligence Service, Division of Scientific Education and Professional 
      Development, Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services.
AD  - Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center
      for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and
      Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd., Atlanta, GA 30329-4027.
FAU - Maes, Sarah E
AU  - Maes SE
AD  - Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for
      Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and
      Prevention, 3156 Rampart Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80521 ([email protected]; [email protected];
      [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]).
FAU - Pilgard, Mark A
AU  - Pilgard MA
AD  - Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for
      Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and
      Prevention, 3156 Rampart Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80521 ([email protected]; [email protected];
      [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]).
FAU - Hojgaard, Andrias
AU  - Hojgaard A
AD  - Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for
      Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and
      Prevention, 3156 Rampart Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80521 ([email protected]; [email protected];
      [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]).
FAU - Buttke, Danielle E
AU  - Buttke DE
AD  - Biological Resources Division, Wildlife Health Branch and Office of Public
      Health, National Park Service, 1201 Oakridge Dr., Suite 200, Fort Collins, CO
      80525 ([email protected]; [email protected]).
FAU - Eisen, Rebecca J
AU  - Eisen RJ
AD  - Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for
      Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and
      Prevention, 3156 Rampart Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80521 ([email protected]; [email protected];
      [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]).
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20161227
PL  - England
TA  - J Med Entomol
JT  - Journal of medical entomology
JID - 0375400
OTO - NOTNLM
OT  - Borrelia burgdorferi
OT  - Ixodes scapularis
OT  - recreational exposure
OT  - tick-borne disease
EDAT- 2016/12/29 06:00
MHDA- 2016/12/29 06:00
CRDT- 2016/12/29 06:00
PHST- 2016/08/29 [received]
AID - tjw213 [pii]
AID - 10.1093/jme/tjw213 [doi]
PST - aheadofprint
SO  - J Med Entomol. 2016 Dec 27. pii: tjw213. doi: 10.1093/jme/tjw213.

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