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Emergency department ultrasound probe infection control: challenges and solutions.

Abstract Point-of-care ultrasound (US) has become a cornerstone in the diagnosis and treatment of patients in the emergency department (ED). Despite the beneficial impact on patient care, concern exists over repeat use of probes and the role as a vector for pathogen transmission. US probes are used for various applications, with the level of infection risk, based on the Spaulding Classification, ranging from noncritical with common practice to semicritical with endocavitary probes. To date, the most closely studied organisms are Staphylococcus aureus and human papilloma virus. Current evidence does confirm probe colonization but has not established a causative role in human infection. Based on current literature, US use during invasive procedures remains an infection control concern, but routine use on intact skin does not appear to cause significant risk to patients. Various barrier methods are available, each with indications based on extent of procedure and likelihood of contact with mucosal surfaces. Additionally, chemical cleansing methods have been shown to be effective in limiting probe contamination after use. New technologies utilizing ultraviolet light are available and effective but not widely used in the ED setting. As our understanding of the critical factors in US probe cleaning and disinfection improves, it is important to assess the challenges found in our current practice and to identify potential solutions to improve practices and procedures in infection control across the spectrum of US probe use in various applications in the ED. This article serves as a summary of the current literature available on infection control topics with the utilization of point-of-care US, and discusses challenges and potential solutions to improve the current practice of probe-related infection control.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms
Keywords

Staphylococcus aureus

disinfection

endocavitary probe

human papilloma virus

infection risk

ultrasound probe

Journal Title open access emergency medicine : oaem
Publication Year Start
%A Shokoohi, Hamid; Armstrong, Paige; Tansek, Ryan
%T Emergency department ultrasound probe infection control: challenges and solutions.
%J Open access emergency medicine : OAEM, vol. 7, pp. 1-9
%D 01/2015
%V 7
%M eng
%B Point-of-care ultrasound (US) has become a cornerstone in the diagnosis and treatment of patients in the emergency department (ED). Despite the beneficial impact on patient care, concern exists over repeat use of probes and the role as a vector for pathogen transmission. US probes are used for various applications, with the level of infection risk, based on the Spaulding Classification, ranging from noncritical with common practice to semicritical with endocavitary probes. To date, the most closely studied organisms are Staphylococcus aureus and human papilloma virus. Current evidence does confirm probe colonization but has not established a causative role in human infection. Based on current literature, US use during invasive procedures remains an infection control concern, but routine use on intact skin does not appear to cause significant risk to patients. Various barrier methods are available, each with indications based on extent of procedure and likelihood of contact with mucosal surfaces. Additionally, chemical cleansing methods have been shown to be effective in limiting probe contamination after use. New technologies utilizing ultraviolet light are available and effective but not widely used in the ED setting. As our understanding of the critical factors in US probe cleaning and disinfection improves, it is important to assess the challenges found in our current practice and to identify potential solutions to improve practices and procedures in infection control across the spectrum of US probe use in various applications in the ED. This article serves as a summary of the current literature available on infection control topics with the utilization of point-of-care US, and discusses challenges and potential solutions to improve the current practice of probe-related infection control.
%P 1
%L 9
%Y 10.2147/OAEM.S50360
%W PHY
%G AUTHOR
%R 2015........7....1S

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author="Shokoohi, Hamid
and Armstrong, Paige
and Tansek, Ryan",
title="Emergency department ultrasound probe infection control: challenges and solutions.",
journal="Open access emergency medicine : OAEM",
year="2015",
month="Jan",
day="05",
volume="7",
pages="1--9",
abstract="Point-of-care ultrasound (US) has become a cornerstone in the diagnosis and treatment of patients in the emergency department (ED). Despite the beneficial impact on patient care, concern exists over repeat use of probes and the role as a vector for pathogen transmission. US probes are used for various applications, with the level of infection risk, based on the Spaulding Classification, ranging from noncritical with common practice to semicritical with endocavitary probes. To date, the most closely studied organisms are Staphylococcus aureus and human papilloma virus. Current evidence does confirm probe colonization but has not established a causative role in human infection. Based on current literature, US use during invasive procedures remains an infection control concern, but routine use on intact skin does not appear to cause significant risk to patients. Various barrier methods are available, each with indications based on extent of procedure and likelihood of contact with mucosal surfaces. Additionally, chemical cleansing methods have been shown to be effective in limiting probe contamination after use. New technologies utilizing ultraviolet light are available and effective but not widely used in the ED setting. As our understanding of the critical factors in US probe cleaning and disinfection improves, it is important to assess the challenges found in our current practice and to identify potential solutions to improve practices and procedures in infection control across the spectrum of US probe use in various applications in the ED. This article serves as a summary of the current literature available on infection control topics with the utilization of point-of-care US, and discusses challenges and potential solutions to improve the current practice of probe-related infection control.",
issn="1179-1500",
doi="10.2147/OAEM.S50360",
url="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27147883",
language="eng"
}

%0 Journal Article
%T Emergency department ultrasound probe infection control: challenges and solutions.
%A Shokoohi, Hamid
%A Armstrong, Paige
%A Tansek, Ryan
%J Open access emergency medicine : OAEM
%D 2015
%8 January 05
%V 7
%@ 1179-1500
%G eng
%F Shokoohi2015
%X Point-of-care ultrasound (US) has become a cornerstone in the diagnosis and treatment of patients in the emergency department (ED). Despite the beneficial impact on patient care, concern exists over repeat use of probes and the role as a vector for pathogen transmission. US probes are used for various applications, with the level of infection risk, based on the Spaulding Classification, ranging from noncritical with common practice to semicritical with endocavitary probes. To date, the most closely studied organisms are Staphylococcus aureus and human papilloma virus. Current evidence does confirm probe colonization but has not established a causative role in human infection. Based on current literature, US use during invasive procedures remains an infection control concern, but routine use on intact skin does not appear to cause significant risk to patients. Various barrier methods are available, each with indications based on extent of procedure and likelihood of contact with mucosal surfaces. Additionally, chemical cleansing methods have been shown to be effective in limiting probe contamination after use. New technologies utilizing ultraviolet light are available and effective but not widely used in the ED setting. As our understanding of the critical factors in US probe cleaning and disinfection improves, it is important to assess the challenges found in our current practice and to identify potential solutions to improve practices and procedures in infection control across the spectrum of US probe use in various applications in the ED. This article serves as a summary of the current literature available on infection control topics with the utilization of point-of-care US, and discusses challenges and potential solutions to improve the current practice of probe-related infection control.
%U http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAEM.S50360
%U http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27147883
%P 1-9

PT Journal
AU Shokoohi, H
   Armstrong, P
   Tansek, R
TI Emergency department ultrasound probe infection control: challenges and solutions.
SO Open access emergency medicine : OAEM
JI Open Access Emerg Med
PD 01
PY 2015
BP 1
EP 9
VL 7
DI 10.2147/OAEM.S50360
LA eng
AB Point-of-care ultrasound (US) has become a cornerstone in the diagnosis and treatment of patients in the emergency department (ED). Despite the beneficial impact on patient care, concern exists over repeat use of probes and the role as a vector for pathogen transmission. US probes are used for various applications, with the level of infection risk, based on the Spaulding Classification, ranging from noncritical with common practice to semicritical with endocavitary probes. To date, the most closely studied organisms are Staphylococcus aureus and human papilloma virus. Current evidence does confirm probe colonization but has not established a causative role in human infection. Based on current literature, US use during invasive procedures remains an infection control concern, but routine use on intact skin does not appear to cause significant risk to patients. Various barrier methods are available, each with indications based on extent of procedure and likelihood of contact with mucosal surfaces. Additionally, chemical cleansing methods have been shown to be effective in limiting probe contamination after use. New technologies utilizing ultraviolet light are available and effective but not widely used in the ED setting. As our understanding of the critical factors in US probe cleaning and disinfection improves, it is important to assess the challenges found in our current practice and to identify potential solutions to improve practices and procedures in infection control across the spectrum of US probe use in various applications in the ED. This article serves as a summary of the current literature available on infection control topics with the utilization of point-of-care US, and discusses challenges and potential solutions to improve the current practice of probe-related infection control.
ER

PMID- 27147883
OWN - NLM
STAT- PubMed-not-MEDLINE
DA  - 20160505
DCOM- 20160505
LR  - 20160510
IS  - 1179-1500 (Electronic)
IS  - 1179-1500 (Linking)
VI  - 7
DP  - 2015
TI  - Emergency department ultrasound probe infection control: challenges and
      solutions.
PG  - 1-9
LID - 10.2147/OAEM.S50360 [doi]
AB  - Point-of-care ultrasound (US) has become a cornerstone in the diagnosis and
      treatment of patients in the emergency department (ED). Despite the beneficial
      impact on patient care, concern exists over repeat use of probes and the role as 
      a vector for pathogen transmission. US probes are used for various applications, 
      with the level of infection risk, based on the Spaulding Classification, ranging 
      from noncritical with common practice to semicritical with endocavitary probes.
      To date, the most closely studied organisms are Staphylococcus aureus and human
      papilloma virus. Current evidence does confirm probe colonization but has not
      established a causative role in human infection. Based on current literature, US 
      use during invasive procedures remains an infection control concern, but routine 
      use on intact skin does not appear to cause significant risk to patients. Various
      barrier methods are available, each with indications based on extent of procedure
      and likelihood of contact with mucosal surfaces. Additionally, chemical cleansing
      methods have been shown to be effective in limiting probe contamination after
      use. New technologies utilizing ultraviolet light are available and effective but
      not widely used in the ED setting. As our understanding of the critical factors
      in US probe cleaning and disinfection improves, it is important to assess the
      challenges found in our current practice and to identify potential solutions to
      improve practices and procedures in infection control across the spectrum of US
      probe use in various applications in the ED. This article serves as a summary of 
      the current literature available on infection control topics with the utilization
      of point-of-care US, and discusses challenges and potential solutions to improve 
      the current practice of probe-related infection control.
FAU - Shokoohi, Hamid
AU  - Shokoohi H
AD  - Department of Emergency Medicine, George Washington University Medical Center,
      Washington DC, USA.
FAU - Armstrong, Paige
AU  - Armstrong P
AD  - Department of Emergency Medicine, George Washington University Medical Center,
      Washington DC, USA.
FAU - Tansek, Ryan
AU  - Tansek R
AD  - Department of Emergency Medicine, George Washington University Medical Center,
      Washington DC, USA.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
PT  - Review
DEP - 20150105
PL  - New Zealand
TA  - Open Access Emerg Med
JT  - Open access emergency medicine : OAEM
JID - 101570796
PMC - PMC4806800
OID - NLM: PMC4806800
OTO - NOTNLM
OT  - Staphylococcus aureus
OT  - disinfection
OT  - endocavitary probe
OT  - human papilloma virus
OT  - infection risk
OT  - ultrasound probe
EDAT- 2015/01/01 00:00
MHDA- 2015/01/01 00:01
CRDT- 2016/05/06 06:00
PHST- 2015 [ecollection]
PHST- 2015/01/05 [epublish]
AID - 10.2147/OAEM.S50360 [doi]
AID - oaem-7-001 [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - Open Access Emerg Med. 2015 Jan 5;7:1-9. doi: 10.2147/OAEM.S50360. eCollection
      2015.

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