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Wounds and Injuries - Top 30 Publications

Revision surgery after rod breakage in a patient with occipitocervical fusion: A case report.

Rod breakage after occipitocervical fusion (OCF) has never been described in a patient who has undergone surgery for basilar invagination (BI) and atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD). Here, we present an unusual but significant case of revision surgery to correct this complication.

Hidden blood loss and its influencing factors after percutaneous kyphoplasty surgery: A retrospective study.

Percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) surgery is generally accepted as a minimally invasive treatment for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs). However, hidden blood loss (HBL) caused by this procedure is usually disregarded. This study aimed to investigate the amount of HBL and its influencing factors after PKP surgery.A total of 160 patients were retrospectively examined from January 2014 to January 2016, and their clinical and radiological data were recorded and analyzed. Preoperative and postoperative hematocrit (Hct) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels were also documented. HBL was calculated using Gross formula. Different factors, including gender, age, bone mineral density (BMD), number of fracture levels, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, operative time, percentage of vertebral height loss, percentage of vertebral height restoration, and cement leakage, were examined. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to elucidate the related clinical or radiological factors of HBL.A total of 122 patients with 169 levels were eligible for inclusion in the study. The mean HBL was 279 ± 120 mL, and the postoperative Hb loss was 8.2 ± 3.9 g/L. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that HBL was positively associated with operative time (P = .000), percentage of vertebral height loss (P = .037), and percentage of vertebral height restoration (P = .000). By contrast, HBL was not associated with gender (P = .874), age (P = .148), BMD (P = .134), number of fracture levels (P = .079), hypertension (P = .259), diabetes mellitus (P = .495), and cement leakage (P = .975). The postoperative incidence of anemia significantly increased by 39.3% compared with that of the preoperative incidence (χ = 21.432, P = .000).For patients with OVCFs, the amount of HBL after PKP is much larger than that observed perioperatively. Operative time, percentage of vertebral height loss, and percentage of vertebral height restoration are influencing factors of HBL.

Evaluation of effect and safety of arthroscopic surgery with three different operative approaches in patients with terrible triad of the elbow: A comparative study.

The terrible triad of the elbow (TTE) is a difficult injury, and the usual TTE consists of posterior dislocation of the elbow, radial head fracture, and coronoid fracture. The target of this retrospective study is to explore the effect, postoperative complications, and prognostic factors in patients with TTE undergoing arthroscopic surgery with three different operative approaches.

Nonleukemic granulocytic sarcoma of orbit after blunt trauma: A case report and review of literature.

Granulocytic sarcoma without invasion of bone marrow or blood is very rare. The diagnosis of it is usually overlooked and the treatment has not reached a consensus. Meanwhile, the onset of this kind of disease is not clear.

Identification of genes related to consecutive trauma-induced sepsis via gene expression profiling analysis.

We aimed to identify crucial genes relevant to the development of consecutive trauma-induced sepsis.A microarray dataset was used to identify genes differentially expressed between peripheral blood samples from consecutive traumatized patients complicated with sepsis and not complicated with sepsis. The dataset GSE12624 was obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus, containing 34 peripheral blood samples from consecutive traumatized patients complicated by sepsis and 36 consecutive traumatized controls. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using Linear Models for Microarray Data package. Then, gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis for DEGs was performed by Onto-Express. Subsequently, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed and pathway enrichment analysis was performed by Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING). Furthermore, protein complexes in the PPI network were predicted by ClusterONE and validated through GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses, and protein domain analysis.Totally, 446 upregulated and 447 downregulated DEGs were identified. Some DEGs were related to acyl-CoA binding (eg, ACBD6), chromosome, and centromeric region (eg, CENPN). In the PPI network, some DEGs were enriched in renin-angiotensin system (RAS, eg, AGTR1 and AGTR2). Three predicted protein complexes were validated in the PPI network. Some genes composing protein complex A were associated with cell proliferation (eg, CDC20, CCNB1, MCM4, RPA2, and PRIM2), and several genes composing protein complex F were implicated in regulation of actin cytoskeleton (eg, PFN2, ARPC2, and WASL).The results suggest that those DEGs may be crucial in the etiology of consecutive trauma-induced sepsis, and they are expected to be therapeutic targets.

A novel technique of using a miniature plate in combination with tension band wiring to treat comminuted patellar fractures.

Traditionally, tension band fixation has been used for treating simple fracture patterns; however, fixation remains a challenge, especially for comminuted fractures. We describe a new method of operation using a combination of a miniature plate with tension band wiring to treat comminuted patellar fractures. The aim of this technique is to transform complicate fractures into simple transverse fractures. As far as we know, no studies using a similar method have been found.The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a novel technique in which a miniature plate is used in combination with tension band wiring to treat comminuted patellar fractures.Between March 2013 and May 2015, 16 patients with closed, displaced, comminuted fractures of the patella were included in the present study. All subjects underwent fixation using a combination of a miniature plate with a tension band wire. Knee function and patient status were evaluated at 12 months using the Böstman knee score and Lysholm knee scale.The average follow-up period was 15.6 months (range, 12-20 months). At the 12-month follow-up, bone healing was satisfactory in all patients. The average postoperative Lysholm score was 91.6 ± 1.4 (range, 84-97). The average postoperative Böstman scale score was 26.4 ± 0.5 (range, 22-30), thereby indicating excellent results in 4 patients and good results in 12. No patients required reoperation.The results demonstrate that this new technique is an effective and safe treatment option for comminuted patella fractures, as it is associated with good clinical outcomes.

Multiple total hip arthroplasties in refractory immune thrombocytopenic purpura: A case report and literature review.

Refractory immune thrombocytopenic purpura (RITP) manifests as low platelet count, with a high risk of hemorrhage, treatment difficulty, and high mortality. Total hip arthroplasty (THA) in RITP is rarely reported. This study aimed to evaluate multiple THAs or revision total hip arthroplasties (RTHAs) in RITP.

Quantitative comorbidity risk assessment of dementia in Taiwan: A population-based cohort study.

Dementia is one of the most burdensome illnesses in elderly populations worldwide. However, the literature about multiple risk factors for dementia is scant.To develop a simple, rapid, and appropriate predictive tool for the clinical quantitative assessment of multiple risk factors for dementia.A population-based cohort study.Based on the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, participants first diagnosed with dementia from 2000 to 2009 and aged ≥65 years in 2000 were included.A logistic regression model with Bayesian supervised learning inference was implemented to evaluate the quantitative effects of 1- to 6-comorbidity risk factors for dementia in the elderly Taiwanese population: depression, vascular disease, severe head injury, hearing loss, diabetes mellitus (DM), and senile cataract, identified from a nationwide longitudinal population-based database.This study enrolled 4749 (9.5%) patients first diagnosed as having dementia. Aged, female, urban residence, and low income were found as independent sociodemographic risk factors for dementia. Among all odds ratios (ORs) of 2-comorbidity risk factors for dementia, comorbid depression and vascular disease had the highest adjusted OR of 6.726. The 5-comorbidity risk factors, namely depression, vascular disease, severe head injury, hearing loss, and DM, exhibited the highest OR of 8.767. Overall, the quantitative effects of 2 to 6 comorbidities and age difference on dementia gradually increased; hence, their ORs were less than additive. These results indicate that depression is a key comorbidity risk factor for dementia.The present findings suggest that physicians should pay more attention to the role of depression in dementia development. Depression is a key cormorbidity risk factor for dementia. It is the urgency of evaluating the nature of the link between depression and dementia; and further testing what extent controlling depression could effectively lead to the prevention of dementia.

Embolization of Struts from an Inferior Vena Cava Filter.

A qualitative study of patient experience of an open fracture of the lower limb during acute care.

Aims The aim of this study was to explore the patients' experience of recovery from open fracture of the lower limb in acute care. Patients and Methods A purposeful sample of 20 participants with a mean age of 40 years (20 to 82) (16 males, four females) were interviewed a mean of 12 days (five to 35) after their first surgical intervention took place between July 2012 and July 2013 in two National Health Service (NHS) trusts in England, United Kingdom. The qualitative interviews drew on phenomenology and analysis identified codes, which were drawn together into categories and themes. Results The findings identify the vulnerability of the patients expressed through three themes; being emotionally fragile, being injured and living with injury. The participants felt a closeness to death and continued uncertainty regarding loss of their limb. They experienced strong emotions while also trying to contain their emotions for the benefit of others. Their sense of self changed as they became a person with visible wounds, needed intimate help, and endured pain. When ready, they imagined what it would be like to live with injury. Conclusion Recovery activities require an increased focus on emotional wellbeing. Surgeons are aware of the need for clinical expertise and for adequate pain relief but may not be as aware that their patients require support regarding their body image and help to imagine their future life. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:522-6.

Displaced femoral neck fractures in patients 60 years of age or younger: results of internal fixation with the dynamic locking blade plate.

Aims The objective of this study was to investigate bone healing after internal fixation of displaced femoral neck fractures (FNFs) with the Dynamic Locking Blade Plate (DLBP) in a young patient population treated by various orthopaedic (trauma) surgeons. Patients and Methods We present a multicentre prospective case series with a follow-up of one year. All patients aged ≤ 60 years with a displaced FNF treated with the DLBP between 1st August 2010 and December 2014 were included. Patients with pathological fractures, concomitant fractures of the lower limb, symptomatic arthritis, local infection or inflammation, inadequate local tissue coverage, or any mental or neuromuscular disorder were excluded. Primary outcome measure was failure in fracture healing due to nonunion, avascular necrosis, or implant failure requiring revision surgery. Results In total, 106 consecutive patients (mean age 52 years, range 23 to 60; 46% (49/106) female) were included. The failure rate was 14 of 106 patients (13.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.1 to 19.9). Avascular necrosis occurred in 11 patients (10.4%), nonunion in six (5.6%), and loss of fixation in two (1.9%). Conclusion The rate of fracture healing after DLBP fixation of displaced femoral neck fracture in young patients is promising and warrants further investigation by a randomized trial to compare the performance against other contemporary methods of fixation. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:443-9.

Mortality and cause of death postoperatively in patients with a hip fracture.

Aims The aim of this study was to compare the rate of mortality and causes of death in Korean patients who undergo surgery for a fracture of the hip, up to 11 years after the injury, with a control group from the general population. Materials and Methods National cohort data from Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service - National Sample Cohort were used. A ratio of 1:4 matched patients with a fracture who underwent surgery (3383, fracture group) between 2003 and 2012, and controls (13 532) were included. The matches were processed for age, gender, income, and region of residence. We also undertook analyses of subgroups according to age and gender. The mean follow-up was 4.45 years (1 to 11). Results The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and stroke was significantly higher in the fracture group and dyslipidemia in the controls. Both crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for the rate of mortality in the fracture group were > 2 (crude HR 2.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.91 to 2.17, p < 0.001; adjusted HR 2.07, 95% CI 1.94 to 2.21, p < 0.001). The HRs were also > 2 for both men and women, and for both those aged ≥ 50 years and < 50 years. However, for those aged < 50 years, they were insignificant. The rates of mortality due to all 11 major causes of death classified following Korean standard classification of diseases were significantly higher in the fracture group compared with the control group, except those in the mental and behavioral disorders category. Conclusion The rate of mortality in the fracture group was significantly higher than in the control group up to 11 years after the surgery. The rate of death due to almost every major cause was significantly higher in the fracture group compared with the control group. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:436-42.

Dorsal bridge plating or transarticular screws for Lisfranc fracture dislocations.

Aims The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the functional and radiological outcomes of bridge plating, screw fixation, and a combination of both methods for the treatment of Lisfranc fracture dislocations. Patients and Methods A total of 108 patients were treated for a Lisfranc fracture dislocation over a period of nine years. Of these, 38 underwent transarticular screw fixation, 45 dorsal bridge plating, and 25 a combination technique. Injuries were assessed preoperatively according to the Myerson classification system. The outcome measures included the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, the validated Manchester Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ) functional tool, and the radiological Wilppula classification of anatomical reduction. Results Significantly better functional outcomes were seen in the bridge plate group. These patients had a mean AOFAS score of 82.5 points, compared with 71.0 for the screw group and 63.3 for the combination group (p < 0.001). Similarly, the mean Manchester Oxford Foot Questionnaire score was 25.6 points in the bridge plate group, 38.1 in the screw group, and 45.5 in the combination group (p < 0.001). Functional outcome was dependent on the quality of reduction (p < 0.001). A trend was noted which indicated that plate fixation is associated with a better anatomical reduction (p = 0.06). Myerson types A and C2 significantly predicted a poorer functional outcome, suggesting that total incongruity in either a homolateral or divergent pattern leads to worse outcomes. The greater the number of columns fixed the worse the outcome (p < 0.001). Conclusion Patients treated with dorsal bridge plating have better functional and radiological outcomes than those treated with transarticular screws or a combination technique. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:468-74.

CRMP2-binding compound, edonerpic maleate, accelerates motor function recovery from brain damage.

Brain damage such as stroke is a devastating neurological condition that may severely compromise patient quality of life. No effective medication-mediated intervention to accelerate rehabilitation has been established. We found that a small compound, edonerpic maleate, facilitated experience-driven synaptic glutamate AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic-acid) receptor delivery and resulted in the acceleration of motor function recovery after motor cortex cryoinjury in mice in a training-dependent manner through cortical reorganization. Edonerpic bound to collapsin-response-mediator-protein 2 (CRMP2) and failed to augment recovery in CRMP2-deficient mice. Edonerpic maleate enhanced motor function recovery from internal capsule hemorrhage in nonhuman primates. Thus, edonerpic maleate, a neural plasticity enhancer, could be a clinically potent small compound with which to accelerate rehabilitation after brain damage.

Supporting recovery from brain injury.

Pediatric Thoracic Trauma: Recognition and Management.

Thoracic injuries account for less than one-tenth of all pediatric trauma-related injuries but comprise 14% of pediatric trauma-related deaths. Thoracic trauma includes injuries to the lungs, heart, aorta and great vessels, esophagus, tracheobronchial tree, and structures of the chest wall. Children have unique anatomic features that change the patterns of observed injury compared with adults. This review article outlines the clinical presentation, diagnostic testing, and management principles required to successfully manage injured children with thoracic trauma.

Pediatric Major Head Injury: Not a Minor Problem.

Traumatic brain injury is a highly prevalent and devastating cause of morbidity and mortality in children. A rapid, stepwise approach to the traumatized child should proceed, addressing life-threatening problems first. Management focuses on preventing secondary injury from physiologic extremes such as hypoxemia, hypotension, prolonged hyperventilation, temperature extremes, and rapid changes in cerebral blood flow. Initial Glasgow Coma Score, hyperglycemia, and imaging are often prognostic of outcome. Surgically amenable lesions should be evacuated promptly. Reduction of intracranial pressure through hyperosmolar therapy, decompressive craniotomy, and seizure prophylaxis may be considered after stabilization. Nonaccidental trauma should be considered when evaluating pediatric trauma patients.

Emergency Care of Pediatric Burns.

Although the overall incidence of and mortality rate associated with burn injury have decreased in recent decades, burns remain a significant source of morbidity and mortality in children. Children with major burns require emergent resuscitation. Resuscitation is similar to that for adults, including pain control, airway management, and administration of intravenous fluid. However, in pediatrics, fluid resuscitation is needed for burns greater than or equal to 15% of total body surface area (TBSA) compared with burns greater than or equal to 20% TBSA for adults. Unique to pediatrics is the additional assessment for non-accidental injury and accurate calculation of the percentage of total burned surface area (TBSA) in children with changing body proportions are crucial to determine resuscitation parameters, prognosis, and disposition.

Pediatric Minor Head Injury 2.0: Moving from Injury Exclusion to Risk Stratification.

Visits for pediatric minor blunt head trauma continue to increase. Variability exists in clinician evaluation and management of this generally low-risk population. Clinical decision rules identify very low-risk children who can forgo neuroimaging. Observation before imaging decreases neuroimaging rates. Outcome data can be used to risk stratify children into more discrete categories. Decision aids improves knowledge and accuracy of risk perception and facilitates identification of caregiver preferences, allowing for shared decision making. For children in whom imaging is performed and is normal or shows isolated linear skull fractures, deterioration and neurosurgical intervention are rare and hospital admission can be avoided.

Early plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 predicts the development of sepsis in trauma patients: A prospective observational study.

Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is an initiating cytokine of the inflammatory cascade. Extracellular MCP-1 exhibits pro-inflammatory characteristic and plays a central pathogenic role in critical illness. The purpose of the study was to identify the association between plasma MCP-1 levels and the development of sepsis after severe trauma.The plasma levels of MCP-1 in severe trauma patients were measured by a quantitative enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay and the dynamic release patterns were recorded at three time points during seven days post-trauma. The related factors of prognosis were compared between sepsis and non-sepsis groups and analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. We also used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to assess the values of different variables in predicting sepsis.A total of 72 patients who met criteria indicative of severe trauma (72.22% of male; mean age, 49.40 ± 14.29 years) were enrolled. Plasma MCP-1 concentrations significantly increased on post-trauma day 1 and that this increase was significantly correlated with the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that early MCP-1, ISS, and IL-6 were independent risk factors for sepsis in severe trauma patients. Incorporation of the early MCP-1 into the ISS can increase the discriminative performance for predicting development of sepsis.Early plasma MCP-1 concentrations can be used to assess the severity of trauma and is correlated with the development of sepsis after severe trauma. The addition of the early MCP-1 levels to the ISS significantly improves its ability to predict development of sepsis.

Endovascular stenting of a complicated type B aortic dissection in an 11-year-old patient: Case Report.

Endovascular aortic repair in children in the case of aortic dissection (AD) is currently unavailable. This is the first report of aortic dissection type B in an 11-years old child treated in endovascular way.

Suicidal hanging donors for lung transplantation: Is this chapter still closed? Midterm experience from a single center in United Kingdom.

In the context of limited donor pool in cardiothoracic transplantation, utilization of organs from high risk donors, such as suicidal hanging donors, while ensuring safety, is under consideration. We sought to evaluate the outcomes of lung transplantations (LTx) that use organs from this group.Between January 2011 and December 2015, 265 LTx were performed at our center. Twenty-two recipients received lungs from donors after suicidal hanging (group 1). The remaining 243 transplantations were used as a control (group 2). Analysis of recipient and donor characteristics as well as outcomes was performed.No statistically significant difference was found in the donor characteristics between analyzed groups, except for higher incidence of cardiac arrest, younger age and smoking history of hanging donors (P < .001, P = .022 and P = .0042, respectively). Recipient preoperative and perioperative characteristics were comparable. Postoperatively in group 1 there was a higher incidence of extracorporeal life support (27.3 vs 9.1%, P = .019). There were no significant differences in chronic lung allograft dysfunction-free survival between group 1 and 2: 92.3 vs 94% at 1 year and 65.9 vs 75.5% at 3 years (P = .99). The estimated cumulative survival rate was also similar between groups: 68.2 vs 83.2% at 1 year and 68.2% versus 72% at 3 years (P = .3758).Hanging as a donor cause of death is not associated with poor mid-term survival or chronic lung allograft dysfunction following transplantation. These results encourage assessment of lungs from hanging donors, and their consideration for transplantation.

Radiotherapy-induced Early ECG Changes and Their Comparison with Echocardiography in Patients with Early-stage Breast Cancer.

Early electrocardiogram (ECG) changes after breast cancer radiotherapy (RT) have been reported, but their characteristics and associated factors are largely unknown. This study aimed to explore early RT-induced ECG changes and to compare them with echocardiography changes.

Treatment of partial thickness hand burn injuries in children with combination of silver foam dressing and zinc-hyaluronic gel: Case reports.

Burns is a common type of traumatic injury in childhood. Nowadays, several wound dressings are available to treat the second-degree hand burns conservatively.

Severe bilateral isolated coronary ostial lesions as a rare manifestation of radiation-induced cardiac disease A case report.

With advances in contemporary radiotherapy techniques, and as cancer survival improves, severe isolated coronary ostial disease may develop many years following mediastinal radiotherapy, even in the absence of classical cardiovascular risk factors.

Traumatic C1-2 rotatory subluxation with dens and bilateral articular facet fractures of C2: A case report.

To the best of our knowledge, this is an extremely rare case of traumatic C1-2 rotatory subluxation associated with multiple C2 fractures.

Clinical application of the sinus tarsi approach in the treatment of intra-articular calcaneal fracture.

To observe the clinical outcome of the sinus tarsi approach in the operative treatment of intra-articular calcaneal fractures.Forty-nine intra-articular calcaneal fractures in 45 patients were managed surgically with sinus tarsi approach. The anatomical plate and compression bolts were applied in 14 feet. The anatomical plate and screws were applied in 35 feet. Maryland foot score system was used to evaluate the function of the hindfoot at the followup.The reduction of the posterior facet was graded as nearly anatomical (less than 2 mm articular displacement) in 46 feet (93.9%). The width, height, and Böhler angle were significantly improved in all patients (P < .01). After a mean follow-up period of 18.7 months (14.5-29 months), the Maryland foot scores were: 34 feet scored 90-100 points (excellent), 6 feet scored 80-90 points (good), 6 feet scored 70-80 points (fair), and 3 feet scored 60-70 points (poor). Incision-edge necrosis occurred in 2 cases. One case suffered from incomplete medial plantar nerve injury. One case suffered from heel pad branch of the tibial nerve injury. Six cases suffered from sural nerve injury, and 4 cases sustained a lateral wound dehiscence due to a hematoma. No case suffered from lateral impingement syndrome. Up to now, no patient had to accept subtalar arthrodesis.Sinus tarsi approach provides good exposure to the subtalar joint. Open reduction and internal fixation of calcaneus fractures through a sinus tarsi approach allows adequate reduction with low risk of wound-healing complications.

Urological complications after radical hysterectomy with postoperative radiotherapy and radiotherapy alone for cervical cancer.

Radiotherapy is a reliable method to cure cervical cancer patients, but it could cause serious urological complications after the treatment due to the anatomical location of the cervix. The main purpose of this retrospective analysis is to study the incidence, latency, and therapeutic efficacy of urological complications caused by radical hysterectomy with postoperative radiotherapy or radiotherapy alone in patients with cervical cancer.A retrospective analysis was conducted on patients with cervical cancer who received radical hysterectomy with postoperative radiotherapy or radiotherapy alone at the First Hospital of Jilin University between January 2010 and May 2016. The urological complications were confirmed by clinical manifestation, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), nuclear scintigraphy, and assessment of renal function. All the patients with urological complications received conventional treatment, including conservative, electrosurgery, ureteral stents, nephrectomy, and neoplasty. The onset time of radiation injury symptoms was confirmed according to the medical history and follow-up. The surveillance for the therapeutic effects for these complications was accomplished by cystoscopy, imaging, and laboratory assessment.The overall rate of urological complications after treatment was 3.26%, comprising 2.12% ureteral obstruction, 0.98% radiocystitis, and 0.16% vesicovaginal fistula. The incidence of ureteral obstruction in patients treated with radical hysterectomy with postoperative radiotherapy and radiotherapy alone was not statistically significant (2.18% vs 1.59%, P > .05). The median onset time of radiocystitis and ureteral obstruction was 10 months (0-75 months) and 12 months (2-66.3 months), respectively. The onset time of vesicovaginal fistula was 3.5 months. After the appropriate treatment, the majority of the complications were under control.The incidence of urological complications is acceptable. There was no statistical difference in the risk between patients treated with radical hysterectomy with postoperative radiotherapy and radiotherapy alone. The latency period between radiotherapy and the manifestation of urological complications may be relatively long. So it is crucial to underline long-term follow-up after radiotherapy. The majority of urological complications were alleviated after symptomatic treatment and the patients with cervical cancer achieved long-term remissions or cures.

Clinical and radiographic outcomes of treatment of comminuted Mason type II radial head fractures with a new implant.

This study aims to evaluate the clinical and radiographic treatment outcomes of comminuted Mason type II radial head fractures, which underwent open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) using a new implant (mother-child screw, MCS).This study included 16 patients (7 male and 9 female patients; mean age: 40.9 years, age range: 19-68 years), who were treated with ORIF, followed by MCS fixation for comminuted type II radial head fractures. The clinical results were evaluated using the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS). Radiographs, which included the quality of fracture reduction, stability, osteoarthritis, and heterotopic ossification of the elbow, were investigated. The mean follow-up period was 23.4 months.Anatomical reduction and bone union were achieved in all patients treated with MCS, and mean union time was 6.2 weeks. The average flexion-extension arc of elbow motion was 135.6° (range: 125°-150°), and the average arc of forearm rotation was 155.3° (range: 145°-170°). Furthermore, MEPS was 94.1 (range: 85-100), and the rate of excellent and good was 100%. All patients returned to preinjury work within a mean period of 11.7 weeks. No heterotopic ossification and joint stiffness of the elbow were encountered. Two patients had mild arthritic changes (grade I), but none of these patients complained of pain.The use of MCS fixation for comminuted type II radial head fractures resulted in good clinical and radiographic outcomes.

Are We Prepared for Nuclear Terrorism?