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Wounds and Injuries - Top 30 Publications

Improvements in osteoporosis testing and care are found following the wide scale implementation of the Ontario Fracture Clinic Screening Program: An interrupted time series analysis.

We evaluated a system-wide impact of a health intervention to improve treatment of osteoporosis after a fragility fracture. The intervention consisted of assigning a screening coordinator to selected fracture clinics to identify, educate, and follow up with fragility fracture patients and inform their physicians of the need to evaluate bone health. Thirty-seven hospitals in the province of Ontario (Canada) were assigned a screening coordinator. Twenty-three similar hospitals were control sites. All hospitals had orthopedic services and handled moderate-to-higher volumes of fracture patients. Administrative health data were used to evaluate the impact of the intervention.Fragility fracture patients (≥50 years; hip, humerus, forearm, spine, or pelvis fracture) were identified from administrative health records. Cases were fractures treated at 1 of the 37 hospitals assigned a coordinator. Controls were the same types of fractures at the control sites. Data were assembled for 20 quarters before and 10 quarters after the implementation (from January 2002 to March 2010). To test for a shift in trends, we employed an interrupted time series analysis-a study design used to evaluate the longitudinal effects of interventions, through regression modelling. The primary outcome measure was bone mineral density (BMD) testing. Osteoporosis medication initiation and persistence rates were secondary outcomes in a subset of patients ≥66 years of age.A total of 147,071 patients were used in the analysis. BMD testing rates increased from 17.0% pre-intervention to 20.9% post-intervention at intervention sites (P < .01) compared with no change at control sites (14.9% and 14.9%, P = .33). Medication initiation improved significantly at intervention sites (21.6-23.97%; P = .02) but not at control sites (17.5-18.5%; P = .27). Persistence with bisphosphonates decreased at all sites, from 59.9% to 56.4% at intervention sites (P = .02) and more so from 62.3% to 54.2% at control sites (P < .01) using 50% proportion of days covered (PDC 50).Significant improvements in BMD testing and treatment initiation were observed after the initiation of a coordinator-based screening program to improve osteoporosis management following fragility fracture.

Shoulder dislocation combined with proximal humerus fracture in children: A case report and literature review.

Proximal humerus fracture occuring simultaneously with dislocation of a shoulder in children is extremely rare, with only a few recent reports of on such cases having been reported.

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation combined with continuous renal replacement therapy in cutaneous burn and inhalation injury caused by hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid.

Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is a highly corrosive agent and can cause corrosive burns. HF can penetrate deeply into tissues through intact skin and the lipid barrier, leading to painful liquefactive necrosis, and inducing hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia. In this study, we hypothesize that continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) may be beneficial in addressing hemodynamic instability in cases of HF poisoning.

Comparison the clinical outcomes and complications of high-viscosity versus low-viscosity in osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.

To compare the clinical outcomes and complications of high viscosity and low viscosity bone cement percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCF).From September 2009 to September 2015, 100 patients with OVCF were randomly divided into 2 groups: group H, using high viscosity cement (n = 50) or group L, using low viscosity cement (n = 50). The clinical outcomes were assessed by the visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), kyphosis Cobb angle, vertebral height, and complications.Significant improvements in the VAS, ODI, kyphosis Cobb angle, and vertebral height were noted in both groups, and the VAS score in the H group showed greater benefit than in the L group. Cement leakage was observed less in group H. Postoperative assessment using computed tomography identified cement leakage in 27 of 98 (27.6%) vertebrae in group H and in 63 of 86 (73.3%) vertebrae in group L (P = .025).Compared with PVP using low viscosity bone cement, PVP using high viscosity bone cement can provide the same clinical outcomes with fewer complications and is recommended for routine clinical use.

Traumatic C1-2 posterolateral dislocation with dens fracture, injury of the transverse atlantal ligament, and unilateral facet fracture with subluxation of C6-7: A case report.

Traumatic C1-2 dislocation associated with contiguous or noncontiguous cervical spine injury is rare. Moreover, there have been no reports describing traumatic C1-2 dislocation associated with multiple contiguous and noncontiguous cervical injuries.

Fat grafting for resurfacing an exposed implant in lower extremity: A case report.

Although numerous reconstruction protocols have been reported for lower leg trauma, those for distal leg trauma remain few. We present the case of a woman with an implant exposure wound, who was successfully treated through fat grafting, without major flap surgery.

Wrapping grafting for congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia: A preliminary report.

Treatment of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT) remains a challenge. The autogenic iliac bone graft is important consistent of treatment for CPT. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of wrapping autogenic iliac bone graft in improvement of the curing opportunities of CPT.

Natural teeth-retained splint based on a patient-specific 3D-printed mandible used for implant surgery and vestibuloplasty: A case report.

With respect to improving the quality of oral rehabilitation, the management of keratinized mucosa is as important as bone condition for implant success. To enhance this management, a natural teeth-retained splint based on a patient-specific 3-dimensional (3D) printed mandible was used in vestibuloplasty to provide sufficient keratinized mucosa around dental implants to support long-term implant maintenance.

Complex pelvic ring injuries associated with floating knee in a poly-trauma patient: A case report.

Complex pelvic ring fracture associated with floating knee is comparatively rare which usually results from high-energy trauma including vehicle-related accidence, falls from height, and earthquake-related injury. To our knowledge, few literatures have documented such injuries in the individual patient. Management of both injuries present challenges for surgical management and postoperative care. The purpose of this study is to prove the feasibility and benefits of damage control orthopedics (DCO).

Simulation of expected childhood and adolescent thyroid cancer cases in Japan using a cancer-progression model based on the National Cancer Registry: Application to the first-round thyroid examination of the Fukushima Health Management Survey.

During the 4 years following the nuclear power plant accident of 2011, 39 males and 77 females were diagnosed with or suspected of having cancer based on the first-round thyroid examination of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS) targeting residents aged <19 years in Fukushima. Prior comparisons between the observed data and Japan's National Cancer Registry (NCR) data suggested that this incidence might be excessive, but such comparisons are problematic because they need not only to adjust index unit (prevalence proportion vs incidence rate), but also examine characteristics (complete enumeration mass screening for the aged 0 to 18 years vs detections in clinical settings for all the residents) and sensitivity of the examinations. The purpose of this study is to build a common model applicable to any region in Japan under nonaccident conditions, and estimate the expected prevalence based on the numbers of subjects surveyed in the FHMS using a simulation of the sensitivity.The cancer-progression model is an extension of Day and Walter's, the parameters of which were estimated by minimizing the weighted root mean squared error between the average age-specific thyroid incident rates from 2001 to 2010 in the NCR and those determined by the model. We estimated expected detectable prevalent cases by the model with their examination-participation proportions and simulated several sensitivities.Median sojourn times were 34 years (males) and 30 years (females) by the model. Simulation results showed that the numbers of observed prevalent cases were within the 95% confidence intervals of the expected prevalent cases with several sensitivities in each gender.We successfully built a cancer-progression model of thyroid cancer based on Japan's NCR data under no accident conditions. It is a tool for comparing the observed prevalence data of examinations and the NCR data, which resolved 3 issues of index unit, the characteristics and sensitivity of the examinations. Simulation results imply that the number of observed thyroid cancer cases can be detected by the FHMS first-round thyroid screening at several sensitivities under no accident conditions.

Removal of a subdermal contraceptive implant (Implanon NXT) that migrated to the axilla by C-arm guidance: A case report and review of the literature.

To report the distant migration of a subdermal contraceptive implant and to suggest that C arm-guided technique is one of the feasible options for removal of the device migrated to the axilla.

Epidemiologic features and management of elbow dislocation with associated fracture in pediatric population.

This study was conducted to explore epidemiologic features of traumatic elbow dislocation with associated fractures in pediatric population following appropriate treatment options.Incidence of elbow dislocation with associated fractures was analyzed in 67 children using elbow radiographs. Treatment for the displaced elbow joint was performed by closed reduction and proper immobilization. Surgical intervention was applied to restore the correct alignment of the fracture. Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS) was used to measure elbow joint function.Incidence of pure dislocation was observed in 7 of 67 children (10.45%). Elbow dislocation was typically accompanied by a single or multiple fractures in 39 (58.21%) and 21 (31.34%) of 67 children, respectively. In contrast, lateral humeral condyle fracture and medial humeral epicondyle fracture accounted for 35.90% and 30.77% of pediatric elbow fractures. All children with elbow fracture-dislocations received surgical intervention by open reduction and internal fixation. During follow-up, 56% to 92% of children displayed significant recovery of elbow function with improving MEPS after the displaced elbow and fractured fragments were reduced and held in place for weeks. There were statistical differences in MEPS between the types of fractures (P < .05 or P < .01).Incidence of isolated elbow dislocation without fracture is low; rather, it is frequently associated with fractures. Early surgical intervention achieves stable fixation and bony union with utility in improving elbow function in the pediatric population.

Effect of training in advanced trauma life support on the kinematics of the spine: A simulation study.

More than 7.5 million people in the world are affected by spinal cord injury (SCI). In this study, we aimed to analyze the effect of training in advanced trauma life support (ATLS) on the kinematics of the spine when performing different mobilization and immobilization techniques on patients with suspected SCI. A quasi-experimental study, clinical simulation, was carried out to determine the effect of training in ATLS on 32 students enrolled in the Master's program of Emergency and Special Care Nursing. The evaluation was performed through 2 maneuvers: placing of the scoop stretcher (SS) and spinal board (SB), with an actor who simulated a clinical situation of suspected spinal injury. The misalignment of the spine was measured with the use of a Vicon 3D motion capture system, before (pre-test) and after (post-test) the training. In the overall misalignment of both maneuvers, statistically significant differences were found between the pre-test misalignment of 62.1° ± 25.9°, and the post-test misalignment of 32.3° ± 10.0°, with a difference between means of 29.7° [(95% confidence interval, 95% CI 22.8-36.6°), (P = .001)]. The results obtained for the placing of the SS showed that there was a pre-test misalignment of 65.1° ± 28.7°, and a post-test misalignment of 33.2° ± 10.1°, with a difference of means of 33.9° [(95% CI, 23.1-44.6°), (P = .001)]. During the placing of the SB, a pre-test misalignment of 59.0° ± 28.7° and a post-test misalignment of 33.4° ± 10.0° were obtained, as well as a difference of means of 25.6° [(95% CI 16.6-34.6°), (P = .001)]. The main conclusion of this study is that training in ATLS decreases the misalignment provoked during the utilization of the SS and SB, regardless of the device used.

Fractures of the femoral shaft in children: national epidemiology and treatment trends in England following activation of major trauma networks.

The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of closed isolated fractures of the femoral shaft in children, and to compare the treatment and length of stay (LOS) between major trauma centres (MTCs) and trauma units (TUs) in England.

The role of a small posterior malleolar fragment in trimalleolar fractures: a biomechanical study.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a posterior malleolar fragment (PMF), with < 25% ankle joint surface, on pressure distribution and joint-stability. There is still little scientific evidence available to advise on the size of PMF, which is essential to provide treatment. To date, studies show inconsistent results and recommendations for surgical treatment date from 1940.

Wound irrigation does not affect health-related quality of life after open fractures: results of a randomized controlled trial.

The Fluid Lavage in Open Fracture Wounds (FLOW) trial was a multicentre, blinded, randomized controlled trial that used a 2 × 3 factorial design to evaluate the effect of irrigation solution (soap versus normal saline) and irrigation pressure (very low versus low versus high) on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with open fractures. In this study, we used this dataset to ascertain whether these factors affect whether HRQL returns to pre-injury levels at 12-months post-injury.

A pilot randomized trial of meniscal allograft transplantation versus personalized physiotherapy for patients with a symptomatic meniscal deficient knee compartment.

Meniscal allograft transplantation is undertaken to improve pain and function in patients with a symptomatic meniscal deficient knee compartment. While case series have shown improvements in patient reported outcome measures (PROMs), its efficacy has not been rigorously evaluated. This study aimed to compare PROMs in patients having meniscal transplantation with those having personalized physiotherapy at 12 months.

Concerns about cardiotoxicity in the HERA trial - Authors' reply.

Concerns about cardiotoxicity in the HERA trial.

Effect of Different Disinfection/Sterilization Methods on Risk of Fracture of Teeth Used in Preclinical Dental Education.

The aim of this in vitro study was to determine whether different disinfection/sterilization methods affected the risk of fracture of extracted teeth used for preclinical dental education. Freshly extracted intact mandibular incisors were assigned to different groups according to the processing method used. In the autoclave group (n=20), teeth were autoclaved for 40 min at 240°F under a pressure of 20 psi; in the formalin group (n=20), teeth were immersed in 10% formalin for two weeks; and in the control group (n=10), teeth were not processed. Teeth were then stored at 4°C in distilled water until use. Endodontic procedures were performed, and the fracture strength of the specimen was subsequently tested under compressive force along the long axis of the teeth using an Instron universal testing machine. The results showed that none of the specimens fractured during endodontic procedures. However, the compressive load needed to fracture the teeth was significantly less for the autoclaved teeth than the teeth stored in formalin or the control teeth (p<0.001). The disinfection/sterilization method used affected the fracture resistance of extracted teeth: autoclaved teeth were less resistant to fracture than teeth that were not sterilized or teeth that were chemically disinfected. However, fracture resistance was not reduced enough to lead to tooth fracture during preclinical endodontic procedures. Therefore, either processing method may be appropriate for teeth to be used for preclinical endodontic training.

Molecular Mechanisms of UVA-Induced Melanoma.

Cutaneous melanoma is a deadly skin cancer, resulting from malignant transformation of melanocytes. Long-wave ultraviolet radiation (315-400 nm) is able to damage DNA, cause mutations, and induce melanoma. However, the exact mechanisms of UVA-induced cutaneous melanoma remain a matter of debate. In this review, we give a brief characterization of the most important elements in the photobiology of UVA in melanomagenesis.

Work-Related Musculoskeletal Injuries in Plastic Surgeons in the United States, Canada, and Norway.

Musculoskeletal injuries are more common among surgeons than among the general population. However, little is known about these types of injuries among plastic surgeons specifically. The authors' goals were to evaluate the prevalence, nature, causes, and potential solutions of these musculoskeletal injuries among plastic surgeons in three different countries: the United States, Canada, and Norway.

Comparison of Surgical Strategies between Proximal Nerve Graft and/or Nerve Transfer and Distal Nerve Transfer Based on Functional Restoration of Elbow Flexion: A Retrospective Review of 147 Patients.

Surgical strategy to treat incomplete brachial plexus injury with palsies of the shoulder and elbow by using proximal nerve graft/transfer or distal nerve transfer is still debated. The aim of this study was to compare both strategies with respect to the recovery of elbow flexion.


The Australian College of Perioperative Nurses (ACORN) have developed a set of standards to guide clinical practice within the perioperative setting. The ACORN standard 'Management of accountable items used during surgery and procedures' (ACORN 2016) details a process for perioperative nurses to follow when undertaking a surgical count.

Heat Stroke.

Association Between Calcium or Vitamin D Supplementation and Fracture Incidence in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

The increased social and economic burdens for osteoporosis-related fractures worldwide make the prevention of such injuries a major public health goal. Previous studies have reached mixed conclusions regarding the association between calcium, vitamin D, or combined calcium and vitamin D supplements and fracture incidence in older adults.

Effect of Antibiotic Prophylaxis on Surgical Site Infections Following Removal of Orthopedic Implants Used for Treatment of Foot, Ankle, and Lower Leg Fractures: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Following clean (class I, not contaminated) surgical procedures, the rate of surgical site infection (SSI) should be less than approximately 2%. However, an infection rate of 12.2% has been reported following removal of orthopedic implants used for treatment of fractures below the knee.

Sports-Related Eye Injuries.

Association Between Laryngopharyngeal Reflux and Radiation-induced Mucositis in Head and Neck Cancer.

We investigated whether laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is a risk factor for radiation-induced mucositis.

Computed Tomography Density Change in the Thyroid Gland Before and After Radiation Therapy.

Hypothyroidism is an established adverse effect of radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, and computed tomography (CT) density of the thyroid gland is lower in hypothyroid than euthyroid individuals. No previous studies have evaluated changes in CT densities of the thyroid gland caused by radiation therapy. The aim was to investigate the relationship between the change in CT density of the thyroid gland before and after radiation therapy for head and neck cancer and hypothyroidism.