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Wounds and Injuries - Top 30 Publications

One-year health and care costs after hip fracture for home-dwelling elderly patients in Norway: Results from the Trondheim Hip Fracture Trial.

The aim of this study was to estimate the one-year health and care costs related to hip fracture for home-dwelling patients aged 70 years and older in Norway, paying specific attention to the status of the patients at the time of fracture and cost differences due to various patient pathways after fracture.

Effect of Vascular Injury on Functional Outcome in Knees with Multi-Ligament Injury: A Matched-Cohort Analysis.

Multi-ligament knee injury (MLKI) associated with knee dislocation can result in vascular injury. The purpose of this study was to compare knee function after MLKI between patients with a vascular injury requiring popliteal artery bypass grafting and patients without vascular involvement. Additionally, factors associated with poor knee function in patients who had MLKI with vascular injury were evaluated.

Effect of Surgeon and Hospital Volume on Morbidity and Mortality After Hip Fracture.

Prior studies have examined the relationship between surgeon and hospital volumes and outcome following hip fracture surgical procedures, but the results have been inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to assess the hip fracture volume-outcome relationship by analyzing data from a large, managed care registry.

MRI Findings in Patients After Small-Head Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty with a Minimum Follow-up of 10 Years.

Concern has been raised about the late onset of adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD) in patients with a small-head metal-on-metal total hip replacement. The aims of this study were to assess the frequency and characteristic appearance of ARMD in patients with a small-head (28-mm) metal-on-metal total hip replacement and elevated blood ion levels (>1 μg/L) after a minimum follow-up of 10 years and to analyze the possible risk factors associated with the prevalence of these lesions.

Blood Metal Ion Thresholds to Identify Patients with Metal-on-Metal Hip Implants at Risk of Adverse Reactions to Metal Debris: An External Multicenter Validation Study of Birmingham Hip Resurfacing and Corail-Pinnacle Implants.

The authors of recent studies have reported newly devised implant-specific blood metal ion thresholds to predict adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD) in patients who have undergone unilateral or bilateral metal-on-metal (MoM) hip arthroplasty. These thresholds were most effective for identifying patients at low risk of ARMD. We investigated whether these newly devised blood metal ion thresholds could effectively identify patients at risk of ARMD after MoM hip arthroplasty in an external cohort of patients.

Total Elbow Arthroplasty for Distal Humeral Fractures: A Ten-Year-Minimum Follow-up Study.

Total elbow arthroplasty is commonly considered for elderly patients with comminuted distal humeral fractures. Satisfactory short-term outcomes have been reported, but long-term outcomes are unknown. Our purpose was to assess the long-term outcomes of total elbow arthroplasty after distal humeral fracture and to determine differences between elbows with or without inflammatory arthritis at the time of fracture.

Tendon Length, Calf Muscle Atrophy, and Strength Deficit After Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture: Long-Term Follow-up of Patients in a Previous Study.

In this prospective study, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess long-term Achilles tendon length, calf muscle volume, and muscle fatty degeneration after surgery for acute Achilles tendon rupture.

Traumatic fractures as a result of falls in children and adolescents: A retrospective observational study.

The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence and pattern of traumatic fractures (TFs) as a result of falls in a population of children and adolescents (≤18 years old) in China.This was a cross-sectional study. We retrospectively reviewed 1412 patients who were children and adolescents with TFs as a result of falls admitted to our university-affiliated hospitals in China from 2001 to 2010. Etiologies included high fall (height ≥2) and low fall (height <2 m). The incidence and pattern were summarized with respect to different age groups, year of admission, etiologies, genders, and the neurological function.This study enrolled 1054 males (74.6%) and 358 females (25.4%) aged 10.8 ± 4.7 years. The etiologies were low fall (1059, 75.0%) and high fall (353, 25.0%). There were 2073 fractures in total and 92 patients (6.5%) presented with multiple fractures. The most common fracture sites were upper extremity fractures in 814 patients (57.6%) and lower extremity fractures in 383 patients (27.1%), followed by craniofacial fractures in 233 patients (16.5%). A total of 231 (16.4%) patients suffered a nerve injury. The frequencies of early and late complications/associated injuries were 19.5% (n = 275) and 9.2% (n = 130). The frequencies of emergency admission, nerve injury, spinal fracture, lower extremity fractures, craniofacial fracture, sternum and rib fracture, and early complications/ASOIs were significantly larger in high fall than low fall (all P <.001, respectively). The frequencies of medical insurance rate (P = .042) and upper extremity fractures (P <.001) were significantly larger in low fall than high fall. The frequencies of spinal fracture (P = .039), lower extremity fractures (P = .048), and craniofacial fracture (P = .041) were significantly larger in female than the male patients. The frequency of upper extremity fractures (P <.001) and the mean age (P <.001) was significantly larger in male than female patients. The frequencies of emergency admission, high fall, spinal fracture, and craniofacial fracture were significantly larger in patients with nerve injury than other patients without nerve injury (all P <.001, respectively).Low falls and upper extremity fractures were the most common etiologies and sites, respectively. High fall, spinal fracture and craniofacial fracture were risk factors for nerve injury. Therefore, we should focus on patients who were caused by high fall and presented with spinal and craniofacial fracture to determine the presence of a nerve injury so that we can provide early, timely diagnosis and targeted treatment to children.

Predictors of noninstitutionalized survival 1 year after hip fracture: A prospective observational study to develop the Marburg Rehabilitation Tool for Hip fractures (MaRTHi).

Hip fractures are frequent fractures in geriatric patients. These fractures have great socioeconomic implications because of the significantly higher risk of mortality and institutionalization. The aim of this study was to develop a prognostic tool to predict survival without institutionalization within 1 year after hip fracture.A total of 402 hip fracture patients aged >60 years (84% community-dwelling) were included in a prospective observational cohort study. Multiple regression analyses determined independent predictors for noninstitutionalized 1-year survival. Finally, the Marburg Rehabilitation Tool for Hip fractures (MaRTHi) was developed based on these independent predictors.Of the 312 patients who were followed up for 1 year, 168 (54%) survived noninstitutionalized, 104 (33%) died, and 40 (13%) lived in nursing homes. Independent predictors for patients' noninstitutionalized survival included the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score [ASA 1 or 2: odds ratio (OR) = 7.828; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.496-24.555 and ASA 3: OR = 8.098; 95% CI = 2.982-21.993 compared with ASA 4 or 5], the Mini Mental State Examination upon admission to the hospital (OR = 7.365; 95% CI = 2.967-18.282 for 27-30 compared with 0-10), patients' age (OR = 2.814; 95% CI = 1.386-5.712 for 75-89 y and OR = 2.520; 95% CI = 0.984-6.453 for 90-99 y compared with 60-74 ys), and prefracture EQ-5D (OR = 2.163; 95% CI = 1.119-4.179 for EQ-5D >0.80 compared with <0.60). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.756 (95% CI = 0.703-0.809), and the sensitivity analysis yielded a MaRTHi score that ranged from 0 to 12 points.The MaRTHi score is the first instrument to predict noninstitutionalized survival with only 4 variables. In addition to 3 well-known factors influencing outcome (age, comorbidities, and cognitive ability), prefracture health-related quality of life was identified as an independent predictor of noninstitutionalized survival. Further studies must be conducted to validate the MaRTHi score and define cutoff scores. Health-related quality of life seems to be an important patient-reported outcome measurement and may play a role in determining patient prognosis.

The influence of renal dialysis and hip fracture sites on the 10-year mortality of elderly hip fracture patients: A nationwide population-based observational study.

Hip fractures in older people requiring dialysis are associated with high mortality. Our study primarily aimed to evaluate the specific burden of dialysis on the mortality rate following hip fracture. The secondary aim was to clarify the effect of the fracture site on mortality. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database to analyze nationwide health data regarding dialysis and non-dialysis patients ≥65 years who sustained a first fragility-related hip fracture during the period from 2001 to 2005. Each dialysis hip fracture patient was age- and sex-matched to 5 non-dialysis hip fracture patients to construct the matched cohort. Survival status of patients was followed-up until death or the end of 2011. Survival analyses using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models and the Kaplan-Meier estimator were performed to compare between-group survival and impact of hip fracture sites on mortality. A total of 61,346 hip fracture patients were included nationwide. Among them, 997 dialysis hip fracture patients were identified and matched to 4985 non-dialysis hip fracture patients. Mortality events were 155, 188, 464, and 103 in the dialysis group, and 314, 382, 1505, and 284 in the non-dialysis group, with adjusted hazard ratios (associated 95% confidence intervals) of 2.58 (2.13-3.13), 2.95 (2.48-3.51), 2.84 (2.55-3.15), and 2.39 (1.94-2.93) at 0 to 3 months, 3 months to 1 year, 1 to 6 years, and 6 to 10 years after the fracture, respectively. In the non-dialysis group, survival was consistently better for patients who sustained femoral neck fractures compared to trochanteric fractures (0-10 years' log-rank test, P < .001). In the dialysis group, survival of patients with femoral neck fractures was better than that of patients with trochanteric fractures only within the first 6 years post-fracture (0-6 years' log-rank, P < .001). Dialysis was a significant risk factor of mortality in geriatric hip fracture patients. Survival outcome was better for non-dialysis patients with femoral neck fractures compared to those with trochanteric fractures throughout 10 years. However, the survival advantage of femoral neck fractures was limited to the first 6 years postinjury among dialysis patients.

Type III Monteggia lesion: a rare association, about a case.

Type III Monteggia lesion is very rare, usually occurring within a context of violent trauma and often going unnoticed. We report the case of a 11-year old boy presenting to the Emergency Department with blunt trauma of the upper limb. The radiological evaluation showed olecranon fracture and radial epiphyseal separation associated with dislocation of the radial head. The patient underwent orthopedic treatment with good outcome after a mean follow-up of 3 months.

Management for esophageal foreign bodies: about 36 cases.

Esophageal foreign bodies are a frequent reason for consultation in the Pediatric Emergency Department. However, they can occur at all ages. This study aims to highlight the clinical, paraclinical and therapeutic features of esophageal foreign bodies management at the Hospital in Mali. We conducted a prospective study of all cases of ingestion of foreign bodies between January 2011 and December 2014. A total of 36 patients underwent endoscopic or surgical treatment. The average age was 6 years (with a range from 14 months to 62 years). They mainly affected male patients with a sex ratio of 1.75. Foreign bodies were blocked in the cricopharyngeal shrinkage in 69.45% of cases, 22.22% of whom had subsequent aortic shrinkage. The average time of foreign body removal was 7.30 hours. Rigid fibroscopy allowed the removal of the foreign body in 88.89% of cases. Thoracotomy allowed the removal of the foreign body in 5.55%. Esophageal foreign bodies can occur at all ages but they are more frequent among children. Endoscopic removal is the gold standard treatment but surgical removal of a blocked esophageal foreign body, although rare, is the last resort, due to the nature of the foreign body and to the occurrence of complications. The best way to reduce accidents is prevention.

Treatment of high-energy pilon fractures using the ILIZAROV treatment.

The management of high-energy pilon fractures is still controversial. Open reduction and internal fixation are often associated with serious complications. Various methods have been used to treat these injuries, with variable results. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the clinical and radiographic outcome of the ILIZAROV technique in patients with high-energy pilon fractures. Thirty cases of distal tibia epiphysis fractures (pilon fractures) were managed from 1999 to 2012. The study group included 5 cases of open fractures. The mean age was 47 years. According to Rüedi and Algower classification; 11 fractures were type II, and 19 type III. All fractures were a consequence of high-energy trauma. Fractures of the lower fibula were present in 28 of the patients. An external Fixator was applied for open fractures. Closed injuries were operated on 3 to 13 days after injury, with an average of 8 days. The mean follow-up was 48 months. All fractures united. The external fixator was removed after a mean of 22 weeks (10 - 28 weeks). Two patients with a type III fracture had a delayed union and were treated with corticotomy and dynamisation of the ILIZAROV fixator. Only one secondary displacement of a type III fracture was noted after two months and was treated by adjuction of 2 olive wires. There were no cases of osteomyelitis or deep infections. Pin-tract infections occurred in ten patients. We had not any case of nervous injury due to introduction of the pins. Using radiological criteria for assessement of reduction of the articular fragments, there was excellent and good restoration of articular structure in 24 cases. The average American Orthopeadic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hind foot score was excellent in 16, good in 6, fair in 6 and poor in 2. Soft tissue healing occurred without need for plastic surgery in all cases. The movements of the ankle ranged from 0 to 20° of dorsiflexion and 5° to 40° of plantar flexion. Twenty patients had gone back to their preinjury profession. The ILIZAROV technique is a safe and a very effective treatment for severe pilon fractures with minimum complications and good healing results.

Intrauterine device: about a rare complication and literature review.

The intrauterine device (IUD) is the most common contraceptive method used in the world. Transuterine migration is a rare complication, accounting for 1/350 - 1/10000 insertions in the literature. We report the case of a 40-year old patient, who had had an IUD insertion 12-year before, presenting with pelvic and right lower back pain associated with intermittent hematuria and burning during urination. Radiological assessment showed calcific deposits on intra bladder IUD. The patient underwent cystostomy, without any difficulty, allowing stone and IUD extraction. A urinary catheter was left in place for 5 days and then withdrawn. The postoperative course was uneventful.

When the denture becomes dangerous!

Although rare in adults, foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a serious accident which can be potentially life threatening or lead to significant sequelae. We report the case of a 50 year old patient without previous pathological history, presenting to the emergency department with chest pain, intermittent cough and exertional dyspnea occurring six days after the accidental aspiration of his plastic dental prosthesis during a meal. Clinical examination was unremarkable. Chest X-ray as well as abdominal x-ray requiring no prior preparation showed no abnormalities. Flexible bronchoscopy under general anesthesia showed FBA at the level of the intermediate trunk. Successful extraction was performed avoiding a much more invasive procedure. Standard X-ray can be useful to visualize radio-opaque FBA or indirect signs suggesting the presence of FBA, but diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopyis is essential.

Laparoscopic evaluation and management of isolated gastric rupture in a boy after blunt abdominal injury.

Blunt abdominal injury in children can be a significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The extent and localization of organ damage cannot be always thoroughly investigated noninvasively and in spite of modern imaging techniques and a laparotomy may be necessary for diagnosis, even though it carries a significant morbidity. We present a rare case of isolated gastric rupture after blunt abdominal injury in a 12 year old boy that sustained a bicycle accident. He was hemodynamically stable, had signs of acute abdomen and axial tomography was inconclusive as of the site of visceral perforation. Definitive diagnosis and treatment were carried out laparoscopically with excellent results. Laparoscopic surgery in cases of blunt abdominal injury with gastric rupture can serve both as a diagnostic and therapeutic modality with the additional advantage of being less traumatic. The accumulation of relevant experience is mandatory in order to establish this modality in the diagnostic and therapeutic protocols.

Idiopathic gastric perforation in neonates: about a case.

Spontaneous neonatal gastric perforation is rare. We report the case of a newborn without any abnormality identified at delivery and whose mother had problem-free pregnancy. On the third day of life, he had a sudden onset of severe abdominal distension followed by bilious vomiting. Abdominal X-rays without treatment showed massive pneumoperitoneum and laparotomy showed a perforation at the level of the anterior gastric wall closed in a single layer closure. Postoperative course was uneventful. Spontaneous neonatal gastric perforation usually has a favorable outcome. Hence the importance of early diagnosis and patient management.

Direct medical costs of hospital treatment of fractures of the upper extremity of the femur.

Fractures of the upper extremity of the femur are serious because of their morbidity and social and/or economic consequences. They have been the subject of several studies of world literature concerning their hospital treatment, evolution and prevention. The increase in the incidence of this pathology seems unavoidable due to population ageing and to the lengthening life expectancy; it is posing a real long-term public health problem whose importance will be further increased by the need to control health care costs. The results of this study show that the average age of onset of fracture of the proximal extremity of the femur is 68,13 ± 16.9 years, with a male predominance and a sex ratio of 1.14. In our study pertrochanterian fractures represented 69.4% of cases. Direct medical costs of the hospital treatment of fractures of the upper extremity of the femur at the Hassan II University Hospital were £387 714,38 in 222 cases, with an average cost of £1757,4 , including costs for patient's stay in hospital, which represented the majority of expenses ( 77% of total costs). It is desirable to raise staff awareness of the costs of consumables in order to reduce treatment costs and to adopt cost-oriented behaviour. Length of stay should be limited to the maximum extent because it only allows to reduce staff and accommodation costs.

Pure internal subtalar dislocation: about a case.

Pure subtalar dislocation is a rare condition. We here report the case of a young patient presenting with pure internal subtalar dislocation as a result of a sport accident. He underwent orthopedic therapy achieving a good functional outcome.

Role of Trauma Damage Control Orthopaedic in polytraumas: a case of pelvic disjunction associated with hip dislocation with vascular injury.

The knowledge of the pathophysiology of patients with severe trauma and the hemodynamic and inflammatory consequences of initial surgical management has led many surgeons to change their approach to the treatment of patients with severe polytraumas associated with lesions of the pelvis or of limbs by integrating the principles of sequential treatment or Trauma Damage Control Orthopaedic (TDCO). We report the case of a patient involved in a public road accident, admitted to hospital in a state of shock with pelvic disjunction and hip dislocation complicated by vascular injury in the same limb. Our approach was based on TDCO concepts by favoring external fixation of the pelvis after hip dislocation reduction. The timeliness of our apprach allowed early limb revascularization while avoiding the hemodynamic and inflammatory complications of open surgery.

Road safety: serious injuries remain a major unsolved problem.

To investigate temporal trends in the incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and costs of health loss caused by serious road traffic injury.

Intravascular Survival and Extravasation of Tumor Cells.

Most metastasizing tumor cells reach distant sites by entering the circulatory system. Within the bloodstream, they are exposed to severe stress due to loss of adhesion to extracellular matrix, hemodynamic shear forces, and attacks of the immune system, and only a few cells manage to extravasate and to form metastases. We review the current understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that allow tumor cells to survive in the intravascular environment and that mediate and promote tumor cell extravasation. As these processes are critical for the metastatic spread of tumor cells, we discuss implications for potential therapeutic approaches and future research.

Association of congenital anomalies with fracture of spine, trunk, and upper and lower limbs among young people: A population-based matched cohort study in Taiwan.

According to the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory, congenital anomalies are caused by kidney malfunctions, which decreased the bone quality, and may eventually result in bone fractures. This retrospective cohort study investigated the relationship between congenital anomalies and fracture of spine, trunk, and upper and lower limbs in young people. We utilized data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. This study included patients with congenital anomalies (International Classification of Diseases/ICD-9 code: 740-759) and a comparison group of patients without congenital anomalies. Cases evaluated were fracture of spine and trunk (ICD-9 codes: 805-809), fracture of upper limbs (ICD-9 codes: 810-819), and fracture of lower limbs (ICD-9 codes: 820-829). Our study shows that in comparison to the control group, patients with congenital anomalies are 1.11 times more likely to develop fractures. This is the first documented research study that supports the TCM theory that "the Kidney governs the bones, and healthy bones give the body stabilization and prevent fracture."

Risk factors and the surgery affection of respiratory complication and its mortality after acute traumatic cervical spinal cord injury.

The aim of this study is to estimate the risk factors of both respiratory complication (RC) and mortality after acute traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (TCSCI). Between July 2005 and July 2015, in 181 patients (142 males and 39 females; mean age 41.0 years) with acute TCSCI, we compared the difference and odds ratio in RC group (n = 73) with that of non-RC group (n = 108), and also death group (n = 15) and survival group (n = 166). We collected injury-related information after half a year of injury, which is as follows: the causes of injury, time of surgery, ICU (intensive care unit) days, ventilator days, ASIA (American Spinal Injury Association) classification, neurological injury, CIPS (Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score), and BMI (body mass index). Besides these, we gathered the general information such as age, gender, smoking history, and use of steroids. The study compared perioperative parameters; surgery-related and instrumentation- and graft-related complication rates; clinical parameters; patient satisfaction; and radiologic parameters. Variations like gender (odds ratio [OR] = 1.269, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.609-2.646]), smoking history (OR = 2.902, 95% CI [1.564-5.385]), AIS grade (grade A) (OR = 6.439, 95% CI [3.334-12.434]), neurological level (C1-C4) (OR = 2.714, 95% CI [1.458-5.066]), and steroid use (OR = 2.983, 95% CI [1.276-6.969]) have a facilitated effect on RC. When we estimated surgery-related affection, only the time of surgery and anterior approach compared with posterior has significant difference in RC (P < .05). Between death and survival group, the aspect of age, non-surgical, CPIS, AIS grade, and BMI have statistically significant difference. Survival analysis reveals significant difference in aforementioned groups. In patients suffering from acute TCSCI, those who are old, have long smoking history, complete spinal cord injury, C1-C4, high CPIS, and fat have high incidence of RC and mortality.

Comparisons of front plate, percutaneous sacroiliac screws, and sacroiliac anterior papilionaceous plate in fixation of unstable pelvic fractures.

This observational study was aimed at comparing the clinical efficacy of sacroiliac anterior plate fixation (SAPF), sacroiliac anterior papilionaceous plate (SAPP), and percutaneous sacroiliac screw internal fixation (PSCIF) introduced for patients with unstable pelvic fracture.

Use of thiazolidinediones and risk of hip fracture in old people in a case-control study in Taiwan.

Little research is available on the association between use of thiazolidinediones and hip fracture in old people in Taiwan. We conducted a population-based case-control study to examine this issue.Using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program, we identified 603 type 2 diabetic subjects 65 years or older in age with newly diagnosed hip fracture in 2000 to 2013 as cases. We randomly selected 603 type 2 diabetic subjects 65 years or older without hip fracture as the controls. Both cases and controls were matched with sex, age, comorbidities, and index year of diagnosing hip fracture. Current use of thiazolidinediones was defined as subjects whose last remaining one tablet of thiazolidinediones was noted ≤30 days before the date of diagnosing hip fracture. Never use of thiazolidinediones was defined as subjects who never had a prescription of thiazolidinediones. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for hip fracture associated with thiazolidinediones use was estimated by the multivariable unconditional logistic regression analysis.After adjustment for covariables, the multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that the adjusted OR of hip fracture was 1.64 for subjects with current use of thiazolidinediones (95% CI 1.01, 2.67), when compared with subjects with never use of thiazolidinediones.Our findings suggest that current use of thiazolidinediones is associated with a 64% higher risk of hip fracture in type 2 diabetic old people in Taiwan. Clinicians should consider the possibility of thiazolidinediones-associated hip fracture among type 2 diabetic old people currently using thiazolidinediones.

Bone fracture risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A meta-analysis.

Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are predisposed to osteoporotic fracture. The present study aims to determine the association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and bone fracture risk, and in relation to gender and site-specific fractures.

Percutaneous Treatment of Superficial Femoral Artery Stenosis Secondary to Radiation Arteritis.

Radiation arteritis is a rare cause of lower extremity peripheral arterial occlusive disease, and has been traditionally treated with open interventions. There have been only a few reported cases of endovascular interventions for this disease. Previous reports described endovascular treatment in the iliac and common femoral regions, but intervention in the superficial femoral artery have not been described. Described here is a case of acute lower extremity ischemia caused by remote radiation arteritis of the superficial femoral artery, which was successfully treated by percutaneous endovascular technique.

Increased Age Predicts Failure to Rescue.

Failure to rescue (FTR), defined as any death after the development of in-hospital complications, is an important quality measure, but the relationship with age after a traumatic injury, has not been well defined. We sought to examine whether older trauma patients are at higher risk for FTR. The National Trauma Databank (NTDB) research datasets 2007 to 2011 were queried for patients ≥16 years who had any reported complication. Those who survived (non-FTR) were compared with those who did not (FTR) using a forward logistic regression model. Overall, 218,986 subjects met inclusion criteria of those, 201,358 (91.2%) survived their complication (non-FTR) and 17,628 (8.8%) died (FTR). A forward logistic regression identified age 65 to 89 years as the strongest predictor of FTR [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.58 (6.11, 7.08), P < 0.001]. Using age group 16 to 45 years as the reference group, the adjusted risk for FTR increased with increasing age in a stepwise fashion [AOR (95 % CI): 1.94 (1.80, 2.09) for age 46 to 65 years, 6.78 (6.19, 7.42) for age 66 to 89 years and 27.58 [21.81, 34.87] for age ≥90 years]. The adjusted risk of FTR also increased in a stepwise fashion with increasing number of complications, reaching AOR (95 per cent CI) of 2.25 (2.07, 2.45), P < 0.001 for ≥4 complications. The risk of failure to rescue increases with age and number of complications. Strategies which track this quality measure to encourage early recognition and treatment of complications in the elderly are necessary.

Use of Antibiotic-Impregnated Absorbable Beads and Tissue Coverage of Complex Wounds.

The treatment of complex wounds is commonplace for plastic surgeons. Standard management is debridement of infected and devitalized tissue and systemic antibiotic therapy. In cases where vital structures are exposed within the wound, coverage is obtained with the use of vascularized tissue using both muscle and fasciocutaneous flaps. The use of nondissolving polymethylmethacrylate and absorbable antibiotic-impregnated beads has been shown to deliver high concentrations of antibiotics with low systemic levels of the same antibiotic. We present a multicenter retrospective review of all cases that used absorbable antibiotic-impregnated beads for complex wound management from 2003 to 2013. A total of 104 cases were investigated, flap coverage was used in 97 cases (93.3%). Overall, 15 patients (14.4%) required reoperation with the highest groups involving orthopedic wounds and sternal wounds. The advantages of using absorbable antibiotic-impregnated beads in complex infected wounds have been demonstrated with minimal disadvantages. The utilization of these beads is expanding to a variety of complex infectious wounds requiring high concentrations of local antibiotics.