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Virus Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for Use of a Hepatitis B Vaccine with a Novel Adjuvant.

Hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination is the primary means of preventing infections and complications caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). On February 21, 2018, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended Heplisav-B (HepB-CpG), a yeast-derived vaccine prepared with a novel adjuvant, administered as a 2-dose series (0, 1 month) for use in persons aged ≥18 years. The ACIP Hepatitis Vaccines Work Group conducted a systematic review of the evidence, including data from four randomized controlled trials assessing prevention of HBV infection and six randomized controlled trials assessing adverse events in adults. Seroprotective antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) levels were achieved in 90.0%-100.0% of subjects receiving HepB-CpG (Dynavax Technologies Corporation), compared with 70.5%-90.2% of subjects receiving Engerix-B (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals). The benefits of protection with 2 doses administered over 1 month make HepB-CpG an important option for prevention of HBV.

Surveillance to Track Progress Toward Polio Eradication - Worldwide, 2016-2017.

Global efforts to eradicate polio began in 1988, and four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions currently have achieved poliofree certification. Within the remaining two regions with endemic poliomyelitis (African and Eastern Mediterranean), Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan have never interrupted transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV). The primary means of detecting poliovirus transmission is surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) among children aged <15 years, combined with collection and testing of stool specimens for detection of WPV and vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs)* in WHO-accredited laboratories within the Global Polio Laboratory Network (GPLN) (1,2). AFP surveillance is supplemented by environmental surveillance for polioviruses in sewage from selected locations. Genomic sequencing of isolated polioviruses enables the mapping of transmission by time and place, assessment of potential gaps in surveillance, and identification of the emergence of VDPVs (3). This report presents poliovirus surveillance data from 2016-2017, with particular focus on six countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) and 20 countries in the African Region (AFR) that reported WPV or circulating VDPVs (cVDPVs) during 2011-2017. Included in the 20 AFR countries are the three most affected by the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone), even though only one (Guinea) reported WPV or cVDPVs during the surveillance period. During 2017, a total of 14 (70%) of the 20 AFR countries and five (83%) of the six EMR countries met both surveillance quality indicators at the national level; however, provincial-level variation was seen. Surveillance strengthening activities are needed in specific countries of these regions to provide evidence supporting ultimate certification of the interruption of poliovirus circulation.

A case report of sofosbuvir and daclatasvirto treat a patient with acute hepatitis C virus genotype 2 monoinfection.

Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are the first-line treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, its effects on patients with acute HCV infection are poorly understood, and the data for treatment of DAAs for genotype 2 acute monoinfection patients with HCV are lacking.

Bullous pemphigoid associated with chronic hepatitis C virus infection in a hepatitis B virus endemic area: A case report.

Bullous pemphigoid is a type of acute or chronic autoimmune disease that involves subepidermal skin lesions with bulla formation. Although viral infections, such as, human herpes virus (HHV), human immunodeficiency virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, HHV-6, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV), are known factors of bullous pemphigoid, HCV infection has only been rarely associated factor, especially in HBV endemic area. A 78-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to erythematous bulla of onset 3 months before presentation affecting his entire body. Pathologic findings, that is, subepidermal bullae containing eosinophils and neutrophils with superficial perivascular lymphocytic and eosinophilic infiltration, were consistent with bullous pemphigoid. Anti-HCV was positive and HCV quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was 1.25 x 10 IU/mL. HCV genotype was 2a. After a diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid associated with chronic HCV infection was reached, he was treated with oral methylprednisolone for bullous pemphigoid, and his skin lesions improved. Oral direct-acting antiviral agents (sofosbuvir plus ribavirin) were prescribed for chronic hepatitis C, and sustained viral response was achieved.

Human immunodeficiency virus infection and mortality risk among lung cancer patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Previous studies have suggested that patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at higher risk of lung cancer, but the impact of HIV infection on the risk of mortality among lung cancer patients is still unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the association between HIV infection and mortality risk among lung cancer patients.

Hydroa vacciniforme-like cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in a child: A case report.

Hydroa vacciniforme (HV)-like T-cell lymphoma is a rare malignancy in childhood associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection.

Neurolymphomatosis in non-Hodgkin lymphoma with cranial multineuritis: A case report.

Neurolymphomatosis (NL) is a rare syndrome of lymphoma and leukemic infiltration of cranial or peripheral nerves.

Lectin microarray and mass spectrometric analysis of hepatitis C proteins reveals N-linked glycosylation.

We used lectin microarray and mass spectrometric analysis to identify the N-linked glycosylation patterns of hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles. HCV J6/JFH-1 chimeric cell culture (HCVcc) in the culture supernatant was concentrated and purified by ultrafiltration and sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. Twelve fractions were collected from the top and analyzed for viral infectivity and HCV RNA content after sucrose gradient separation. HCV RNA and proteins were separated by ultracentrifugation in a continuous 10% to 60% sucrose gradient to purify viral particles based on their sedimentation velocities. HCVcc particles were found mainly in fractions 6 to 8, as determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis for HCV RNA and ELISA of the HCV core protein. The N-glycans on HCV proteins were analyzed by lectin microarray and mass spectrometry. We identified that 32 of 37 lectins displayed the positive binding signals and 16 types of N-glycoforms of which the major HCV glycoforms were high mannose-type N-linked oligosaccharides, hybrid N-glycans, and fucosylated N-glycans. Our study provided new detailed information regarding the majority of the glycan-protein profile, complementing to previous findings of glycan-HCV protein interactions.

Statins in adult patients with HIV: Protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Patients with HIV have been found to suffer from lipid abnormalities, including elevated levels of total and LDL-cholesterol as well as triglyceride levels. Abnormal lipid levels are associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, which are significant causes of mortality among the general population. Therefore, the objective of the current study is to conduct a systematic review with network meta-analysis to compare the effects of statins classes on HIV patients.

Zika Virus Shedding in Semen of Symptomatic Infected Men.

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that has been linked to adverse birth outcomes. Previous reports have shown that person-to-person transmission can occur by means of sexual contact.

Probable Sexually Transmitted Zika Virus Infection in a Pregnant Woman.

The unique aspects of chronic hepatitis B infection in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

Detection and genotyping of human papillomavirus (HPV) in HIV-infected women and its relationship with HPV/HIV co-infection.

HPV have been identified as high-risk and low-risk, depending on their association with the development of cancer. HPV infections can be facilitated by co-infection with HIV. Here, we investigated HPV prevalence and genotypes and the risk factors affecting HPV/HIV co-infection. Forty HIV-positive patients had 80 cervical swab samples collected in 2 consecutive years. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA direct sequencing were used to perform HPV genotyping. Statistical analyses were performed regarding risk factors for HPV/HIV co-infection and the occurrence of cervical lesions. HPV DNA was detected in 59 samples (73.75%), and high-risk HPVs were predominant (59.3%). The most prevalent type was HPV56 (17%), followed by HPV16 (15.3%). Patient age did not affect the risk of cervical cancer (P = .84) or HPV prevalence in different years (P = .25/P = .63). CD4 count also did not affect the risk for cervical lesions in the tested samples (P = .15/P = .28). Although the HIV viral load was not correlated with an increase in cervical lesion detection in the first group of analyzed samples (P = .12), it did affect cervical cancer risk in the group of samples analyzed in the following year (P = .045). HIV-infected patients presented a high prevalence of HPV co-infection, and HPV16 and HPV56 were the most prevalent genotypes. Considering this, it is possible that immunodeficiency can contribute to increased susceptibility to HPV56 infection in HIV-infected patients. The association between HIV viral load and the lesions also confirmed the importance of monitoring HIV/HPV co-infected patients with high HIV viral loads.

Factors associated with HIV infection among Yi minority residents in Liangshan Prefecture, Sichuan Province: A path analysis.

We aimed to evaluate HIV prevalence among residents of Liangshan Prefecture through HIV sentinel surveillance (HSS) data over the period from 2010 to 2016, and investigate risk factors for HIV infection in this population and interactions among them.Two sites (Dechang and Ningnan counties) with majority-Han populations, and 1 site (Butuo) with a majority-Yi population were selected. We used questionnaires to investigate residents' demographic and behavioral characteristics from 2010 to 2016, and performed HIV testing. Multivariate logistic regression and path analysis were undertaken to investigate the interactions and mediating effects among significant risk factors for HIV infection.A total of 5403 community residents in the Yi area and 10,897 community residents in the Han areas were enrolled. HIV prevalence in the Yi area was consistently high, ranging from 9.46% (63/666, 2011) to 2.88% (23/798, 2012) over the period from 2010 to 2016. HIV prevalence in the Han areas ranged from 0.15% (2/1333, 2010) to 0.44% (7/1604, 2011) over the same period. Multivariate logistic regression showed that unprotected casual sexual behavior, male gender, illiteracy, drug use, and injection drug use were positively associated with HIV infection risk in the Yi area. Path analysis of the risk factors revealed that casual sexual behavior (0.051) and injection drug use (0.161) were directly associated with HIV infection. However, marital status (0.004), ethnicity (0.017), education level (-0.004), HIV/AIDS-related prevention knowledge (-0.012), and drug use (0.11) had an indirect influence on HIV infection through casual sexual behavior and injection drug use.The prevalence of HIV is high among residents of majority-Yi areas, and injection drug use and casual sexual behavior are risk factors for infection.

Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in an Adult.

Evolution of HIV prevalence and behavioral factors among MSM in Togo between 2011 and 2015.

The aim of this study was to assess sexual behavior and measure HIV prevalence among MSM in 2015, in Togo.

Prevalence of chronic viral hepatitis infections in Karaj, Iran.

Viral hepatitis is challenging for health and blood safety. Studies carried out on blood donors can help find the frequency and trending of hepatitis B and C infections in a community and also safety of donation. The study aim is to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV in Karaj blood donors over a four year period between 2010 to 2013.

Next-generation sequencing provides an added value in determining drug resistance and viral tropism in Cameroonian HIV-1 vertically infected children.

With limited and low-genetic barrier drugs used for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, vertically transmitted HIV-1 drug-resistance (HIVDR) is concerning and might prompt optimal pediatric strategies.The aim of this study was to ascertain HIVDR and viral-tropism in majority and minority populations among Cameroonian vertically infected children.A comparative analysis among 18 HIV-infected children (7 from PMTCT-exposed mothers and 11 from mothers without PMTCT-exposure) was performed. HIVDR and HIV-1 co-receptor usage was evaluated by analyzing sequences obtained by both Sanger sequencing and ultra-deep 454-pyrosequencing (UDPS), set at 1% threshold.Overall, median (interquartile range) age, viremia, and CD4 count were 6 (4-10) years, 5.5 (4.9-6.0) log10 copies/mL, and 526 (282-645) cells/mm, respectively. All children had wild-type viruses through both Sanger sequencing and UDPS, except for 1 PMTCT-exposed infant harboring minority K103N (8.31%), born to a mother exposed to AZT+3TC+NVP. X4-tropic viruses were found in 5 of 15 (33.3%) children (including 2 cases detected only by UDPS). Rate of X4-tropic viruses was 0% (0/6) below 5 years (also as minority species), and became relatively high above 5 years (55.6% [5/9], P = .040. X4-tropic viruses were higher with CD4 ≤15% (4/9 [44.4%]) versus CD4 >15% (1/6 [16.7%], P = .580); similarly for CD4 ≤200 (3/4 [75%]) versus CD4 >200 (2/11 [18.2%] cells/mm, P = .077.NGS has the ability of excluding NRTI- and NNRTI-mutations as minority species in all but 1 children, thus supporting the safe use of these drug-classes in those without such mutations, henceforth sparing ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors or integrase inhibitors for the few remaining cases. In children under five years, X4-tropic variants would be rare, suggesting vertical-transmission with CCR5-tropic viruses and possible maraviroc usage at younger ages.

Influenza Vaccination during Pregnancy and Protection against Pertussis.

Rethinking Criminalization of HIV Exposure - Lessons from California's New Legislation.

Zika virus infection and psychosis.

HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis: A Review.

About 40 000 Americans and 2 million people worldwide are newly infected with HIV each year. The combination antiretroviral regimen, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine, taken as a single pill once daily, has been shown to prevent HIV transmission but is used by fewer than 20% of people who could benefit in the United States.

Vaccination Strategies During Shortages of Yellow Fever Vaccine-Reply.

Vaccination Strategies During Shortages of Yellow Fever Vaccine.

Effect of matrix metalloproteinase-21 (572C/T) polymorphism on HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder.

Remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is a presumed reason for the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The coding region polymorphism in MMP-21 572C/T gene may have a potential functional effect on ECM remodeling. Hence, we aimed to examine the association of MMP-21 polymorphism with the modulation of HAND severity and its prevalence in HIV-infected and healthy individuals. Genotyping of MMP-21 572C/T polymorphism was performed by PCR-RFLP in total 150 HIV-infected individuals, 50 with HAND, 100 without HAND and 150 healthy controls. MMP-21 572TT genotype was predominantly higher in HAND patients compared with no HAND (OR = 1.63, p = 0.57). MMP-21 572T allele was associated with reduce risk for HAND severity (OR = 0.50, p = 0.04). Similarly, MMP-21 572TT genotype underrepresented in HIV-infected individuals compared to healthy controls (3.0% vs 6.7%, OR = 0.27, p = 0.08). MMP-21 572CT genotype and early HIV disease stage showed a higher risk for the advancement of HIV disease with marginal significance (OR = 1.89, p = 0.07). MMP-21 572CT genotype increased the risk for the modulation of HAND severity in tobacco users (OR = 1.98, p = 0.43). MMP-21 572CT genotype among tobacco and alcohol users showed elevated risk for the development of HAND in HIV-infected individuals (OR = 2.30, p = 0.15; OR = 1.86, p = 0.23). Similarly, MMP-21 572TT genotype enhanced the risk for the development of HAND in tobacco users (OR = 3.48, p = 0.40). In conclusion, the presence of coding region 572T allele may have protection for HAND severity. MMP-21 572C/T polymorphism and tobacco and alcohol usage may facilitate the development of HAND.

Antigenic and genetic characteristics of zoonotic influenza viruses and development of candidate vaccine viruses for pandemic preparedness.

Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2018–2019 northern hemisphere influenza season.

Comment on: Definitive tests for dengue fever: when and which should I use?

Fatal Yellow Fever in Travelers to Brazil, 2018.

Yellow fever virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes yellow fever, an acute infectious disease that occurs in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. Most patients with yellow fever are asymptomatic, but among the 15% who develop severe illness, the case fatality rate is 20%-60%. Effective live-attenuated virus vaccines are available that protect against yellow fever (1). An outbreak of yellow fever began in Brazil in December 2016; since July 2017, cases in both humans and nonhuman primates have been reported from the states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais, and Rio de Janeiro, including cases occurring near large urban centers in these states (2). On January 16, 2018, the World Health Organization updated yellow fever vaccination recommendations for Brazil to include all persons traveling to or living in Espírito Santo, São Paulo, and Rio de Janeiro states, and certain cities in Bahia state, in addition to areas where vaccination had been recommended before the recent outbreak (3). Since January 2018, 10 travel-related cases of yellow fever, including four deaths, have been reported in international travelers returning from Brazil. None of the 10 travelers had received yellow fever vaccination.

Bleeding and Blood Disorders in Clients of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention - Eastern and Southern Africa, 2015-2016.

Male circumcision reduces the risk for female-to-male human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission by approximately 60% (1) and has become a key component of global HIV prevention programs in countries in Eastern and Southern Africa where HIV prevalence is high and circumcision coverage is low. Through September 2017, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) had supported 15.2 million voluntary medical male circumcisions (VMMCs) in 14 priority countries in Eastern and Southern Africa (2). Like any surgical intervention, VMMC carries a risk for complications or adverse events. Adverse events during circumcision of males aged ≥10 years occur in 0.5% to 8% of procedures, though the majority of adverse events are mild (3,4). To monitor safety and service quality, PEPFAR tracks and reports qualifying notifiable adverse events. Data reported from eight country VMMC programs during 2015-2016 revealed that bleeding resulting in hospitalization for ≥3 days was the most commonly reported qualifying adverse event. In several cases, the bleeding adverse event revealed a previously undiagnosed or undisclosed bleeding disorder. Bleeding adverse events in men with potential bleeding disorders are serious and can be fatal. Strategies to improve precircumcision screening and performance of circumcisions on clients at risk in settings where blood products are available are recommended to reduce the occurrence of these adverse events or mitigate their effects (5).