A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Practice Guidelines as Topic - Top 30 Publications

Focal Ablation of Early-Stage Prostate Cancer: Candidate Selection, Treatment Guidance, and Assessment of Outcome.

Prostate cancer lesions smaller than 0.5 m(3), or Gleason pattern 3, are likely clinically insignificant. Clinically significant disease is often limited to a single index lesion. Focal ablation targets this index lesion, maintains oncological control, and minimizes complications by preserving healthy prostate tissue. Template mapping biopsy or multiparametric MRI-targeted biopsies are used to identify appropriate index lesions. Multiple energy modalities have been tested, including high-intensity frequency ultrasound, cryoablation, laser ablation, photodynamic therapy, focal brachytherapy, radiofrequency ablation, irreversible electroporation. Outcome is assessed by biopsy of the target area, triggered by prostate-specific antigen measurements or MRI imaging, or performed per protocol at 12 months.

The Care of Children With Congenital Heart Disease in Their Primary Medical Home.

Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth anomaly. With advances in repair and palliation of these complex lesions, more and more patients are surviving and are discharged from the hospital to return to their families. Patients with CHD have complex health care needs that often must be provided for or coordinated for by the primary care provider (PCP) and medical home. This policy statement aims to provide the PCP with general guidelines for the care of the child with congenital heart defects and outlines anticipated problems, serving as a repository of current knowledge in a practical, readily accessible format. A timeline approach is used, emphasizing the role of the PCP and medical home in the management of patients with CHD in their various life stages.

Mixed-Phenotype Acute Leukemia: Diagnostic Criteria and Pitfalls.

Mixed-phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) is a heterogeneous category in the World Health Organization classification that comprises acute leukemias with discrete admixed populations of myeloid and lymphoid blasts ("bilineal") or with extensive coexpression of lymphoid and myeloid markers in a single blast population ("biphenotypic"). Flow cytometric findings suggestive of MPAL are often met with consternation by pathologists and oncologists alike, owing to unfamiliarity with the disease and uncertainty about how MPAL fits into established paradigms for treatment of acute leukemia. The purpose of this review is to explain the diagnostic criteria for MPAL, summarize its biological and clinical features, and address common diagnostic pitfalls of these unusual leukemias.

International Variation in Asthma and Bronchiolitis Guidelines.

Guideline recommendations for the same clinical condition may vary. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of agreement among comparable asthma and bronchiolitis treatment recommendations from guidelines.

Infection Prevention and Control in Pediatric Ambulatory Settings.

Since the American Academy of Pediatrics published its statement titled "Infection Prevention and Control in Pediatric Ambulatory Settings" in 2007, there have been significant changes that prompted this updated statement. Infection prevention and control is an integral part of pediatric practice in ambulatory medical settings as well as in hospitals. Infection prevention and control practices should begin at the time the ambulatory visit is scheduled. All health care personnel should be educated regarding the routes of transmission and techniques used to prevent the transmission of infectious agents. Policies for infection prevention and control should be written, readily available, updated every 2 years, and enforced. Many of the recommendations for infection control and prevention from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for hospitalized patients are also applicable in the ambulatory setting. These recommendations include requirements for pediatricians to take precautions to identify and protect employees likely to be exposed to blood or other potentially infectious materials while on the job. In addition to emphasizing the key principles of infection prevention and control in this policy, we update those that are relevant to the ambulatory care patient. These guidelines emphasize the role of hand hygiene and the implementation of diagnosis- and syndrome-specific isolation precautions, with the exemption of the use of gloves for routine diaper changes and wiping a well child's nose or tears for most patient encounters. Additional topics include respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette strategies for patients with a respiratory tract infection, including those relevant for special populations like patients with cystic fibrosis or those in short-term residential facilities; separation of infected, contagious children from uninfected children when feasible; safe handling and disposal of needles and other sharp medical devices; appropriate use of personal protective equipment, such as gloves, gowns, masks, and eye protection; and appropriate use of sterilization, disinfection, and antisepsis. Lastly, in this policy, we emphasize the importance of public health interventions, including vaccination for patients and health care personnel, and outline the responsibilities of the health care provider related to prompt public health notification for specific reportable diseases and communication with colleagues who may be providing subsequent care of an infected patient to optimize the use of isolation precautions and limit the spread of contagions.

Update: Interim Guidance for the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Management of Infants with Possible Congenital Zika Virus Infection - United States, October 2017.

CDC has updated its interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for infants with possible congenital Zika virus infection (1) in response to recently published updated guidance for health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure (2), unknown sensitivity and specificity of currently available diagnostic tests for congenital Zika virus infection, and recognition of additional clinical findings associated with congenital Zika virus infection. All infants born to mothers with possible Zika virus exposure* during pregnancy should receive a standard evaluation at birth and at each subsequent well-child visit including a comprehensive physical examination, age-appropriate vision screening and developmental monitoring and screening using validated tools (3-5), and newborn hearing screen at birth, preferably using auditory brainstem response (ABR) methodology (6). Specific guidance for laboratory testing and clinical evaluation are provided for three clinical scenarios in the setting of possible maternal Zika virus exposure: 1) infants with clinical findings consistent with congenital Zika syndrome regardless of maternal testing results, 2) infants without clinical findings consistent with congenital Zika syndrome who were born to mothers with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection,(†) and 3) infants without clinical findings consistent with congenital Zika syndrome who were born to mothers without laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection. Infants in the first two scenarios should receive further testing and evaluation for Zika virus, whereas for the third group, further testing and clinical evaluation for Zika virus are not recommended. Health care providers should remain alert for abnormal findings (e.g., postnatal-onset microcephaly and eye abnormalities without microcephaly) in infants with possible congenital Zika virus exposure without apparent abnormalities at birth.


Resistance to chemotherapeutics used in the treatment of urinary tract infection is increasing throughout the world. Taking into account clinical experiences, as well as current bacterial resistance in Croatia and neighboring countries, the selection of antibiotic should be the optimal one. Treatment of urinary tract infection in children is particularly demanding due to their age and inclination to severe systemic reaction and renal scarring. If parenteral antibiotics are administered initially, it should be switched to oral medication as soon as possible. Financial aspects of antimicrobial therapy are also very important with the main goal to seek the optimal cost/benefit ratio. Financial orientation must appreciate the basic primum non nocere as a conditio sine qua non postulate as well.

Health Disparities in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Blueprint for Action. An Official American Thoracic Society Statement.

Health disparities have a major impact in the quality of life and clinical care received by minorities in the United States. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare cardiopulmonary disorder that affects children and adults and that, if untreated, results in premature death. The impact of health disparities in the diagnosis, treatment, and clinical outcome of patients with PAH has not been systematically investigated.

Implementing a Systematic Approach to Reduce Cesarean Birth Rates in Nulliparous Women.

To implement a systematic approach to safely reduce nulliparous cesarean birth rates.

Implementation effectiveness of revised (post-2010) World Health Organization guidelines on prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV using routinely collected data in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic literature review.

To synthesize and evaluate the impact of implementing post-2010 World Health Organization (WHO) prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) guidelines on attainment of PMTCT targets.

An evidence-based guide to the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

Non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a potentially devastating condition, the prevalence of which is increasing. Many joint-preserving forms of treatment, both medical and surgical, have been developed in an attempt to slow or reverse its progression, as it usually affects young patients. However, it is important to evaluate the best evidence that is available for the many forms of treatment considering the variation in the demographics of the patients, the methodology and the outcomes in the studies that have been published, so that it can be used effectively. The purpose of this review, therefore, was to provide an up-to-date, evidence-based guide to the management, both non-operative and operative, of non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1267-79.

Development, Validation, and Implementation of a Clinic Nurse Staffing Guideline.

Ensuring that the level of nurse staffing used to care for patients is appropriate to the setting and service intensity is essential for high-quality and cost-effective care. This article describes the development, validation, and implementation of the clinic technical skills permission list developed specifically to guide nurse staffing decisions in physician clinics of an academic medical center. Results and lessons learned in using this staffing guideline are presented.

The Ethics of Sharing Plastic Surgery Videos on Social Media: Systematic Literature Review, Ethical Analysis, and Proposed Guidelines.

Recent videos shared by plastic surgeons on social media applications such as Snapchat, Instagram, and YouTube, among others, have blurred the line between entertainment and patient care. This has left many in the plastic surgery community calling for the development of more structured oversight and guidance regarding video sharing on social media. To date, no official guidelines exist for plastic surgeons to follow. Little is known about the ethical implications of social media use by plastic surgeons, especially with regard to video sharing. A systematic review of the literature on social media use in plastic surgery was performed on October 31, 2016, with an emphasis on ethics and professionalism. An ethical analysis was conducted using the four principles of medical ethics. The initial search yielded 87 articles. Thirty-four articles were included for analyses that were found to be relevant to the use of social media in plastic surgery. No peer-reviewed articles were found that mentioned Snapchat or addressed the ethical implications of sharing live videos of plastic surgery on social media. Using the four principles of medical ethics, it was determined that significant ethical concerns exist with broadcasting these videos. This analysis fills an important gap in the plastic surgery literature by addressing the ethical issues concerning live surgery broadcasts on social media. Plastic surgeons may use the guidelines proposed here to avoid potential pitfalls.

Facial Assessment and Injection Guide for Botulinum Toxin and Injectable Hyaluronic Acid Fillers: Focus on the Midface.

This second article of a three-part series addresses techniques and recommendations for aesthetic treatment of the midface. Injectable fillers are important for rejuvenation of the midface by replacing lost volume and providing structural support; neuromodulators play a smaller role in this facial region. Fillers are used for volumization and contouring of the midface regions, including the upper cheek and lid-cheek junction and the submalar and preauricular areas. Also, treatment of the frontonasal angle, the dorsum, the nasolabial angle, and the columella may be used to shape and contour the nose. Neuromodulators may be used to treat bunny lines and for elevation of the nasal tip. The midface is considered an advanced area for treatment, and injectors are advised to obtain specific training, particularly when injecting fillers near the nose, because of the risk of serious complications, including blindness and necrosis. Injections made in the midcheek must be performed with caution to avoid the infraorbital artery.

New Evidence Supporting Cyclosporine Efficacy in Epidermal Necrolysis.

Sixty years after its original description by Sir Alan Lyell, epidermal necrolysis (from Stevens-Johnson syndrome to toxic epidermal necrolysis) seems finally amenable to a specific treatment in addition to essential symptomatic measures in specialized settings. A recently published systematic review and an article by Gonzales-Herrada et al. strongly suggest that cyclosporine is effective in reducing the risk of death.

Type 2 Diabetes and Osteoporosis: A Guide to Optimal Management.

Both type 2 diabetes (T2D) and osteoporosis are affected by aging and quite often coexist. Furthermore, the fracture risk in patients with T2D is increased. The aim of this article is to review updated information on osteoporosis and fracture risk in patients with T2D, to discuss the effects of diabetes treatment on bone metabolism, as well as the effect of antiosteoporotic medications on the incidence and control of T2D, and to provide a personalized guide to the optimal management.

Cutaneous melanoma: an audit of management timeliness against New Zealand guidelines.

The New Zealand Ministry of Health's "Faster Cancer Treatment" programme aims for timely care for patients with cancer, including melanoma. Melanoma care guidelines detail investigation and treatment timeliness standards. This audit assesses compliance with these.

Primary care physicians are under-testing for celiac disease in patients with iron deficiency anemia: Results of a national survey.

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a common extra-intestinal manifestation of celiac disease (CD). Little is known about the frequency with which primary care physicians (PCPs) test for CD in patients with IDA. We aimed to describe how PCPs approach testing for CD in asymptomatic patients with IDA.

Randomized clinical trials of dental bleaching - Compliance with the CONSORT Statement: a systematic review.

We reviewed the literature to evaluate: a) The compliance of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on bleaching with the CONSORT; and b) the risk of bias of these studies using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool (CCRT). We searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed and other electronic databases, to find RCTs focused on bleaching (or whitening). The articles were evaluated in compliance with CONSORT in a scale: 0 = no description, 1 = poor description and 2 = adequate description. Descriptive analyses of the number of studies by journal, follow-up period, country and quality assessments were performed with CCRT for assessing risk of bias in RCTs. 185 RCTs were included for assessment. More than 30% of the studies received score 0 or 1. Protocol, flow chart, allocation concealment and sample size were more critical items, as 80% of the studies scored 0. The overall CONSORT score for the included studies was 16.7 ± 5.4 points, which represents 52.2% of the maximum CONSORT score. A significant difference among journal, country and period of time was observed (p < 0.02). Only 7.6% of the studies were judged at "low" risk; 62.1% were classified as "unclear"; and 30.3% as "high" risk of bias. The adherence of RCTs evaluating bleaching materials and techniques to the CONSORT is still low with unclear/high risk of bias.

Acute Diarrheal Infections in Adults.

Adrenal venous sampling for primary aldosteronism: laboratory medicine best practice.

Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common form of secondary hypertension and is critical to identify because when caused by an aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) or another unilateral form, it is potentially curable, and even when caused by bilateral disease, antihypertensives more specific to PA treatment can be employed (ie, aldosterone antagonists). Identification of unilateral forms is not generally accomplished with imaging because APAs may be small and elude detection, and coincidental identification of a non-functioning incidentaloma contralateral to an APA may lead to removal of an incorrect gland. For this reason, the method of choice for identifying unilateral forms of PA is selective adrenal venous sampling (AVS) followed by aldosterone and cortisol analysis on collected samples. This procedure is technically difficult from a radiological standpoint and, from the laboratory perspective, is fraught with opportunities for preanalytical, analytical and postanalytical error. We review the process of AVS collection, analysis and reporting. Suggestions are made for patient preparation, specimen labelling practices and nomenclature, analytical dilution protocols, which numerical results to report, and the necessary subsequent calculations. We also identify and explain frequent sources of confusion in the aldosterone and cortisol results and provide an example of tabular reporting to facilitate interpretation and communication between laboratorian, radiologist and clinician.

Project Public Health Ready: History and Evolution of a Best Practice for Public Health Preparedness Planning.

We review the history and evolution of Project Public Health Ready and demonstrate why it is considered a best practice in public health preparedness planning. Previous articles on this program have described its impact on single health departments. We provide background information, review successes and challenges to date, and inform public health practitioners about a vetted tool for local public health planners to develop capacity and capability in all-hazards planning and response.

New ACS surgical practice guidelines now include patient education.

Vision Screening in Children.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: State-of-the-art 2017 and new therapeutic strategies.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a fatal malignancy with an overall 5-year survival of 8% for all stages combined. The majority of patients present with stage IV disease at diagnosis and these patients have an overall 5-year survival of 3%. Currently, the standard of care for metastatic pancreas adenocarcinoma is combination cytotoxic therapy, namely FOLFIRINOX or gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel for good performance status patients. Given the challenges and the rising incidence of PDAC expected to become the second leading cause of cancer-related death by 2030, there is a major unmet need to develop more effective therapies. In this setting, the molecular and genomic characterization of PDAC have underpinned the use of targeted therapies. To date, the results from targeted agent evaluation have been disappointing with some exceptions. Novel promising strategies depend on biomarker identification and patient selection e.g. germline mutations in DNA repair or mismatch repair genes, where the addition of a platinum agent or checkpoint inhibitor can have a positive impact on survival. This article will review the state-of-the-art treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer with an emphasis on novel promising therapeutic strategies and an overview on emerging biomarkers.

Score of Adherence to 2016 European Cardiovascular Prevention Guidelines Predicts Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality in the General Population.

Guidelines on cardiovascular (CV) disease prevention promote healthy lifestyle behaviours and CV risk factor control to reduce CV risk. The effect of adherence to these guidelines on CV and all-cause mortality is not well known.

Professional and Regulatory Infection Control Guidelines: Collaboration to Promote Patient Safety.

Professional organizations and regulatory agencies collaborate on infection prevention and control guidelines to support preventing and controlling infection in the surgical setting. More specifically, regulatory and accrediting agencies, professional associations, and advisory committees create and promote the use of evidence-based recommendations for preventing surgical site infections. Many agencies perform accreditation surveys to ensure compliance with these standards and guidelines. Perioperative personnel can use these resources to implement and sustain essential processes for infection prevention and control and to facilitate staff member compliance with standards, regulations, and best practices. To guide perioperative practice, it is important for nurses to understand the role of these agencies and organizations and the resources each offers to help ensure the best patient outcomes.

Role of metformin for ovulation induction in infertile patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): a guideline.

Metformin alone compared with placebo increases the ovulation rate in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) but should not be used as first-line therapy for anovulation because oral ovulation induction agents such as clomiphene citrate or letrozole alone are much more effective in increasing ovulation, pregnancy, and live-birth rates in women with PCOS. There is fair evidence that metformin alone does not increase rates of miscarriage when stopped at the initiation of pregnancy and insufficient evidence that metformin in combination with other agents used to induce ovulation increases live-birth rates.

Removal of myomas in asymptomatic patients to improve fertility and/or reduce miscarriage rate: a guideline.

The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate if uterine myomas impact the likelihood of pregnancy and pregnancy loss, and if myomectomy influences pregnancy outcomes in asymptomatic women. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that the presence of myomas reduces the likelihood of achieving pregnancy. However, there is fair evidence that myomectomy (open or laparoscopic) for cavity-distorting myomas (intramural or intramural with a submucosal component) improves pregnancy rates and reduces the risk of early pregnancy loss. There is fair evidence that hysteroscopic myomectomy for cavity-distorting myomas improves clinical pregnancy rates but insufficient evidence regarding the impact of this procedure on the likelihood of live birth or early pregnancy loss. In women with asymptomatic cavity-distorting myomas, myomectomy may be considered to optimize pregnancy outcomes.

Current margin practice and effect on re-excision rates following the publication of the SSO-ASTRO consensus and ABS consensus guidelines: a national prospective study of 2858 women undergoing breast-conserving therapy in the UK and Ireland.

There is variation in margin policy for breast conserving therapy (BCT) in the UK and Ireland. In response to the Society of Surgical Oncology and American Society for Radiation Oncology (SSO-ASTRO) margin consensus ('no ink on tumour' for invasive and 2 mm for ductal carcinoma in situ [DCIS]) and the Association of Breast Surgery (ABS) consensus (1 mm for invasive and DCIS), we report on current margin practice and unit infrastructure in the UK and Ireland and describe how these factors impact on re-excision rates.