PubTransformer

A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Parasitic Diseases - Top 30 Publications

A comparative study on the efficacy of praziquantel and albendazole in the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in Adim, Cross River State, Nigeria.

Praziquantel (PZQ) is the current drug of choice for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in endemic areas. It is very efficacious, although the potential for the development of resistance has been reported in some endemic areas among human subjects and in animal studies. Its' limitation include high cost and administration of multiple numbers of tablets. Albendazole (ALB) is used in the treatment of intestinal helminths infection. It is a broad-spectrum single-dose antihelminthic with an excellent cure rate and safety criteria. Currently, it is not routinely used for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis.

Access to benznidazole for Chagas disease in the United States-Cautious optimism?

Drugs for neglected tropical diseases (NTD) are being excessively priced in the United States. Benznidazole, the first-line drug for Chagas disease, may become approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and manufactured by a private company in the US, thus placing it at risk of similar pricing. Chagas disease is an NTD caused by Trypanosoma cruzi; it is endemic to Latin America, infecting 8 million individuals. Human migration has changed the epidemiology causing nonendemic countries to face increased challenges in diagnosing and managing patients with Chagas disease. Only 2 drugs exist with proven efficacy: benznidazole and nifurtimox. Benznidazole has historically faced supply problems and drug shortages, limiting accessibility. In the US, it is currently only available under an investigational new drug (IND) protocol from the CDC and is provided free of charge to patients. However, 2 companies have stated that they intend to submit a New Drug Application (NDA) for FDA approval. Based on recent history of companies acquiring licensing rights for NTD drugs in the US with limited availability, it is likely that benznidazole will become excessively priced by the manufacturer-paradoxically making it less accessible. However, if the companies can be taken at their word, there may be reason for optimism.

Occupational Animal Exposure Among Persons with Campylobacteriosis and Cryptosporidiosis - Nebraska, 2005-2015.

Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium are two common causes of gastroenteritis in the United States. National incidence rates measured for these pathogens in 2015 were 17.7 and 3.0 per 100,000 population, respectively; Nebraska was among the states with the highest incidence for both campylobacteriosis (26.6) and cryptosporidiosis (≥6.01) (1). Although campylobacteriosis and cryptosporidiosis are primarily transmitted via consumption of contaminated food or water, they can also be acquired through contact with live animals or animal products, including through occupational exposure (2). This exposure route is of particular interest in Nebraska, where animal agriculture and associated industries are an important part of the state's economy. To estimate the percentage of disease that might be related to occupational animal exposure in Nebraska, the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services (NDHHS) and CDC reviewed deidentified investigation reports from 2005 to 2015 of cases of campylobacteriosis and cryptosporidiosis among Nebraska residents aged ≥14 years. Case investigation notes were searched for evidence of occupational animal exposures, which were classified into discrete categories based on industry, animal/meat, and specific work activity/exposure. Occupational animal exposure was identified in 16.6% of 3,352 campylobacteriosis and 8.7% of 1,070 cryptosporidiosis cases, among which animal production (e.g., farming or ranching) was the most commonly mentioned industry type (68.2% and 78.5%, respectively), followed by employment in animal slaughter and processing facilities (16.3% and 5.4%, respectively). Among animal/meat occupational exposures, cattle/beef was most commonly mentioned, with exposure to feedlots (concentrated animal feeding operations in which animals are fed on stored feeds) reported in 29.9% of campylobacteriosis and 7.9% of cryptosporidiosis cases. Close contact with animals and manure in feedlots and other farm settings might place workers in these areas at increased risk for infection. It is important to educate workers with occupational animal exposure about the symptoms of enteric diseases and prevention measures. Targeting prevention strategies to high-risk workplaces and activities could help reduce disease.

Brief Report: High Need to Switch cART or Comedication With the Initiation of DAAs in Elderly HIV/HCV-Coinfected Patients.

To describe the use of nonantiretroviral comedication and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in patients coinfected with HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) and to predict the potential for drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) against HCV.

The use of a P. falciparum specific coiled-coil domain to construct a self-assembling protein nanoparticle vaccine to prevent malaria.

The parasitic disease malaria remains a major global public health concern and no truly effective vaccine exists. One approach to the development of a malaria vaccine is to target the asexual blood stage that results in clinical symptoms. Most attempts have failed. New antigens such as P27A and P27 have emerged as potential new vaccine candidates. Multiple studies have demonstrated that antigens are more immunogenic and are better correlated with protection when presented on particulate delivery systems. One such particulate delivery system is the self-assembling protein nanoparticle (SAPN) that relies on coiled-coil domains of proteins to form stable nanoparticles. In the past we have used de novo designed amino acid domains to drive the formation of the coiled-coil scaffolds which present the antigenic epitopes on the particle surface.

Zoonotic Chlamydia caviae Presenting as Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

An ImmunoSignature test distinguishes Trypanosoma cruzi, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and West Nile virus seropositivity among asymptomatic blood donors.

The complexity of the eukaryotic parasite Trypanosoma (T.) cruzi manifests in its highly dynamic genome, multi-host life cycle, progressive morphologies and immune-evasion mechanisms. Accurate determination of infection or Chagas' disease activity and prognosis continues to challenge researchers. We hypothesized that a diagnostic platform with higher ligand complexity than previously employed may hold value.

SisLeish: A multi-country standardized information system to monitor the status of Leishmaniasis in the Americas.

In the Americas, leishmaniasis is endemic in 18 countries, and from 2001 through 2015, 17 countries reported 843,931 cases of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, and 12 countries reported 52,176 cases of visceral leishmaniasis. A Regional Information System (SisLeish) was created in order to provide knowledge of the distribution and tendency of this disease to analyze and monitor the leishmaniasis status. This article analyses the performance and progress of SisLeish from 2012-2015.

Systematic review of clinical trials assessing the therapeutic efficacy of visceral leishmaniasis treatments: A first step to assess the feasibility of establishing an individual patient data sharing platform.

There are an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) annually. A variety of factors are taken into account when considering the best therapeutic options to cure a patient and reduce the risk of resistance, including geographical area, malnourishment and HIV coinfection. Pooled analyses combine data from many studies to answer specific scientific questions that cannot be answered with individual studies alone. However, the heterogeneity of study design, data collection, and analysis often makes direct comparison difficult. Individual Participant Data (IPD) files can be standardised and analysed, allowing detailed analysis of this merged larger pool, but only a small fraction of systematic reviews and meta-analyses currently employ pooled analysis of IPD. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify published studies and studies reported in clinical trial registries to assess the feasibility of developing a VL data sharing platform to facilitate an IPD-based analysis of clinical trial data. Studies conducted between 1983 to 2015 that reported treatment outcome were eligible.

Effects of Aging on Parasite Biomass, Inflammation, Endothelial Activation, Microvascular Dysfunction and Disease Severity in Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.

In populations pauci-immune to malaria, risk of severe malaria increases with age. This is particularly apparent in Plasmodium knowlesi malaria. However, pathophysiological mechanisms underlying knowlesi malaria, and of the age-related increase in risk of severe malaria in general, are poorly understood.

Parasites Causing Cerebral Falciparum Malaria Bind Multiple Endothelial Receptors and Express EPCR and ICAM-1-Binding PfEMP1.

Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) mediates the binding and accumulation of infected erythrocytes (IE) to blood vessels and tissues. Specific interactions have been described between PfEMP1 and human endothelial proteins CD36, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR); however, cytoadhesion patterns typical for pediatric malaria syndromes and the associated PfEMP1 members are still undefined.

Spatial distribution and risk factors of Schistosoma haematobium and hookworm infections among schoolchildren in Kwale, Kenya.

Large-scale schistosomiasis control programs are implemented in regions with diverse social and economic environments. A key epidemiological feature of schistosomiasis is its small-scale heterogeneity. Locally profiling disease dynamics including risk factors associated with its transmission is essential for designing appropriate control programs. To determine spatial distribution of schistosomiasis and its drivers, we examined schoolchildren in Kwale, Kenya.

Gametocytemia and Attractiveness of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Kenyan Children to Anopheles gambiae Mosquitoes.

It has been suggested that Plasmodia manipulate their vertebrate hosts to enhance parasite transmission. Using a dual-choice olfactometer, we investigated the attraction of Anopheles gambiae to 50 Kenyan children (aged 5-12 years) who were naturally infected with Plasmodium falciparum or noninfected controls. Microscopic gametocyte carriers attracted almost 2 times more mosquitoes than children who were parasite free, harbored asexual stages, or had gametocytes at submicroscopic densities. By using highly sensitive stage-specific molecular methods to detect P. falciparum, we show that gametocytes-and not their noninfectious asexual progenitors-induce increased attractiveness of humans to mosquitoes. Our findings therefore support the parasite host manipulation hypothesis.

Neurosyphilis in Africa: A systematic review.

Neurological involvement is one of the most important clinical manifestations of syphilis and neurological disease occurs in both early and late syphilis. The impact of HIV co-infection on clinical neurosyphilis remains unclear. The highest prevalence of both syphilis and HIV is in Africa. Therefore it might be expected that neurosyphilis would be an important and not uncommon manifestation of syphilis in Africa and frequently occur in association with HIV co-infection; yet few data are available on neurosyphilis in Africa. The aim of this study is to review data on neurosyphilis in Africa since the onset of the HIV epidemic.

Spatial distribution, Leishmania species and clinical traits of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis cases in the Colombian army.

In Colombia, the cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the most common manifestation across the army personnel. Hence, it is mandatory to determine the species associated with the disease as well as the association with the clinical traits. A total of 273 samples of male patients with CL were included in the study and clinical data of the patients was studied. PCR and sequencing analyses (Cytb and HSP70 genes) were performed to identify the species and the intra-specific genetic variability. A georeferenced database was constructed to identify the spatial distribution of Leishmania species isolated. The identification of five species of Leishmania that circulate in the areas where army personnel are deployed is described. Predominant infecting Leishmania species corresponds to L. braziliensis (61.1%), followed by Leishmania panamensis (33.5%), with a high distribution of both species at geographical and municipal level. The species L. guyanensis, L. mexicana and L. lainsoni were also detected at lower frequency. We also showed the identification of different genotypes within L. braziliensis and L. panamensis. In conclusion, we identified the Leishmania species circulating in the areas where Colombian army personnel are deployed, as well as the high intra-specific genetic variability of L. braziliensis and L. panamensis and how these genotypes are distributed at the geographic level.

Unsupervised primaquine for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria relapses in southern Papua: A hospital-based cohort study.

Primaquine is the only licensed drug for eradicating Plasmodium vivax hypnozoites and, therefore, preventing relapses of vivax malaria. It is a vital component of global malaria elimination efforts. Primaquine is efficacious when supervised in clinical trials, but its effectiveness in real-world settings is unknown. We aimed to determine whether unsupervised primaquine was effective for preventing re-presentation to hospital with vivax malaria in southern Papua, Indonesia.

Isoniazid for preventing tuberculosis in HIV-infected children.

Tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of illness and death in HIV-positive children living in areas of high TB prevalence. We know that isoniazid prophylaxis prevents TB in HIV-negative children following TB exposure, but there is uncertainty related to its role in TB preventive treatment in HIV-positive children.

Human leptospirosis in Seychelles: A prospective study confirms the heavy burden of the disease but suggests that rats are not the main reservoir.

Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira for which rats are considered as the main reservoir. Disease incidence is higher in tropical countries, especially in insular ecosystems. Our objectives were to determine the current burden of leptospirosis in Seychelles, a country ranking first worldwide according to historical data, to establish epidemiological links between animal reservoirs and human disease, and to identify drivers of transmission.

Modeling zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence in central Tunisia from 2009-2015: Forecasting models using climate variables as predictors.

Transmission of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) depends on the presence, density and distribution of Leishmania major rodent reservoir and the development of these rodents is known to have a significant dependence on environmental and climate factors. ZCL in Tunisia is one of the most common forms of leishmaniasis. The aim of this paper was to build a regression model of ZCL cases to identify the relationship between ZCL occurrence and possible risk factors, and to develop a predicting model for ZCL's control and prevention purposes. Monthly reported ZCL cases, environmental and bioclimatic data were collected over 6 years (2009-2015). Three rural areas in the governorate of Sidi Bouzid were selected as the study area. Cross-correlation analysis was used to identify the relevant lagged effects of possible risk factors, associated with ZCL cases. Non-parametric modeling techniques known as generalized additive model (GAM) and generalized additive mixed models (GAMM) were applied in this work. These techniques have the ability to approximate the relationship between the predictors (inputs) and the response variable (output), and express the relationship mathematically. The goodness-of-fit of the constructed model was determined by Generalized cross-validation (GCV) score and residual test. There were a total of 1019 notified ZCL cases from July 2009 to June 2015. The results showed seasonal distribution of reported ZCL cases from August to January. The model highlighted that rodent density, average temperature, cumulative rainfall and average relative humidity, with different time lags, all play role in sustaining and increasing the ZCL incidence. The GAMM model could be applied to predict the occurrence of ZCL in central Tunisia and could help for the establishment of an early warning system to control and prevent ZCL in central Tunisia.

Case Report: Severe and Complicated Cynomolgi Malaria in a Rhesus Macaque Resulted in Similar Histopathological Changes as Those Seen in Human Malaria.

Histopathological data collected from patients with severe malaria have been instrumental for studying malaria pathogenesis. Animal models of malaria are critical to complement such studies. Here, the histopathological changes observed in a rhesus macaque with severe and complicated Plasmodium cynomolgi malaria are reported. The animal presented with thrombocytopenia, severe anemia, and hyperparasitemia during the acute infection. The macaque was given subcurative antimalarial treatment, fluid support, and a blood transfusion to treat the clinical complications, but at the time of transfusion, kidney function was compromised. These interventions did not restore kidney function, and the animal was euthanized due to irreversible renal failure. Gross pathological and histological examinations revealed that the lungs, kidneys, liver, spleen, and bone marrow exhibited abnormalities similar to those described in patients with malaria. Overall, this case report illustrates the similarities in the pathophysiological complications that can occur in human malaria and cynomolgi malaria in rhesus macaques.

Hygienic Behaviors and Risks for Ascariasis among College Students in Kabul, Afghanistan.

Teenagers have a high prevalence of ascariasis in low-income countries with endemic disease, and their hygienic behaviors and access to proper sanitation may be limited in rapidly urbanizing settings. We studied university students in Kabul to estimate the proportion with ascariasis and determine the prevalence of risk factors for infection. Ascariasis was assessed through microscopy for 520 students attending Kabul Medical University. Overall, 15.8% of students were infected. Living in a hostel (21.2% versus 10.4% in houses) using well water (27.7% versus 9.7% for piped water), eating street food (29.4% versus 3.0% for those who do not), and eating unwashed vegetables (63.6% versus 8.8% for those who do not) were risk factors for infection. Recent city migrants who live in group hostels, including students, are important targets for interventions to reduce ascariasis. Such interventions could include encouraging individuals to prepare their own food and use only potable water.

Case Report: Polymerase Chain Reaction Testing of Tick Bite Site Samples for the Diagnosis of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis.

Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne infectious disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular bacterium. Until now, the utility of tick-bite site samples for HGA diagnosis has not been reported. Using a patient's buffy coat and tick-bite site crust samples, we performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing using Ehrlichia- or Anaplasma-specific primers. PCR with buffy coat and crust samples obtained before doxycycline administration was positive. Six days after doxycycline administration, PCR with the buffy coat sample was negative but PCR with a crust tissue sample from the tick-bite site remained positive. This is the first case to suggest that crust tissue at the tick-bite site may be useful for early HGA diagnosis in patients who have already been treated with antibiotics such as doxycycline.

High Prevalence of Anemia but Low Level of Iron Deficiency in Preschool Children during a Low Transmission Period of Malaria in Rural Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Anemia is a worldwide public health concern especially in preschool children in developing countries and iron deficiency (ID) is generally assumed to cause at least 50% of the cases. However, data on this contribution are scarce. To close this gap, we determined in 2013 the contribution of ID in the etiology of anemia and measured others factors associated to noniron deficiency anemia (NIDA) in 900 preschool children randomly selected during a two-stage cluster nutritional survey in the Miti-Murhesa health zone, in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. In these children, we collected sociodemographic, clinical, and biological parameters and determined the nutritional status according to the World Health Organization 2006 standards. Anemia was defined as altitude-adjusted hemoglobin < 110 g/L and ID was defined as serum ferritin < 12 μg/L or < 30 μg/L in the absence or presence of inflammation, respectively. Median (interquartile range) age was 29.4 (12-45) months. The prevalence of anemia was 46.6% (391/838) among whom only 16.5% (62/377) had ID. Among children without signs of inflammation, only 4.4% (11/251) met the ferritin-based (unadjusted) definition of ID. Logistic regression analysis identified ID, history of fever during the last 2 weeks and mid-upper arm circumference < 125 mm as the only independent factors associated to anemia. In conclusion, anemia is a severe public health problem in the Miti-Murhesa health zone, but NIDA is mostly predominant and needs to be further studied. Control of infections and prevention of acute undernutrition (wasting) are some of appropriate interventions to reduce the burden anemia in this region.

Spatiotemporal Analysis of the Malaria Epidemic in Mainland China, 2004-2014.

The purpose of this study is to characterize spatiotemporal heterogeneities in malaria distribution at a provincial level and investigate the association between malaria incidence and climate factors from 2004 to 2014 in China to inform current malaria control efforts. National malaria incidence peaked (4.6/100,000) in 2006 and decreased to a very low level (0.21/100,000) in 2014, and the proportion of imported cases increased from 16.2% in 2004 to 98.2% in 2014. Statistical analyses of global and local spatial autocorrelations and purely spatial scan statistics revealed that malaria was localized in Hainan, Anhui, and Yunnan during 2004-2009 and then gradually shifted and clustered in Yunnan after 2010. Purely temporal clusters shortened to less than 5 months during 2012-2014. The two most likely clusters detected using spatiotemporal analysis occurred in Anhui between July 2005 and November 2007 and Yunnan between January 2010 and June 2012. Correlation coefficients for the association between malaria incidence and climate factors sharply decreased after 2010, and there were zero-month lag effects for climate factors during 2010-2014. Overall, the spatiotemporal distribution of malaria in China changed from relatively scattered (2004-2009) to relatively clustered (2010-2014). As the proportion of imported cases increased, the effect of climate factors on malaria incidence has gradually become weaker since 2011. Therefore, new warning systems should be applied to monitor resurgence and outbreaks of malaria in mainland China, and quarantine at borders should be reinforced to control the increasingly trend of imported malaria cases.

Prevalence, Age Profile, and Associated Risk Factors for Hymenolepis nana Infection in a Large Population-Based Study in Northern Peru.

Hymenolepis nana, the dwarf tapeworm, is a common intestinal infection of children worldwide. We evaluated infection and risk factor data that were previously collected from 14,761 children aged 2-15 years during a large-scale program in northern Peru. We found that 1,124 of 14,761 children (7.61%) had H. nana infection, a likely underestimate given that only a single stool sample was examined by microscopy for diagnosis. The strongest association with infection was lack of adequate water (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 2.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.82-2.48) and sanitation infrastructure in the house (aPR 1.94, 95% CI 1.64-2.29). One quarter of those tested did not have a bathroom or latrine at home, which doubled their likelihood of infection. Similarly, one quarter did not have piped public water to the house, which also increased the likelihood of infection. Continued efforts to improve access to basic water and sanitation services will likely reduce the burden of infection in children for this and other intestinal infections.

Sustained High Cure Rate of Artemether-Lumefantrine against Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria after 8 Years of Its Wide-Scale Use in Bagamoyo District, Tanzania.

We assessed the temporal trend of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) cure rate after 8 years of its wide-scale use for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria from 2006 to 2014 in Bagamoyo district, Tanzania. Trend analysis was performed for four studies conducted in 2006, 2007-2008, 2012-2013, and 2014. Patients with acute uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria were enrolled, treated with standard AL regimen and followed-up for 3 (2006), 28 (2014), 42 (2012-2013), or 56 (2007-2008) days for clinical and laboratory evaluation. Primary outcome was day 28 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-adjusted cure rate across years from 2007 to 2014. Parasite clearance was slower for the 2006 and 2007-2008 cohorts with less than 50% of patients cleared of parasitemia on day 1, but was rapid for the 2012-2013 and 2014 cohorts. Day 28 PCR-adjusted cure rate was 168/170 (98.8%) (95% confidence interval [CI], 97.2-100), 122/127 (96.1%) (95% CI, 92.6-99.5), and 206/207 (99.5%) (95% CI, 98.6-100) in 2007-2008, 2012-2013, and 2014, respectively. There was no significant change in the trend of cure rate between 2007 and 2014 (χ(2)trend test = 0.06, P = 0.90). Pretreatment P. falciparum multidrug-resistant gene 1 (Pfmdr1) N86 prevalence increased significantly across years from 13/48 (27.1%) in 2006 to 183/213 (85.9%) in 2014 (P < 0.001), and P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene (Pfcrt) K76 prevalence increased significantly from 24/47 (51.1%) in 2006 to 198/205 (96.6%) in 2014 (P < 0.001). The AL cure rate remained high after 8 years of its wide-scale use in Bagamoyo district for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria despite an increase in prevalence of pretreatment Pfmdr1 N86 and Pfcrt K76 between 2006 and 2014.

Host regulation of liver fibroproliferative pathology during experimental schistosomiasis via interleukin-4 receptor alpha.

Interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4Rα) is critical for the initiation of type-2 immune responses and implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental schistosomiasis. IL-4Rα mediated type-2 responses are critical for the control of pathology during acute schistosomiasis. However, type-2 responses tightly associate with fibrogranulomatous inflammation that drives host pathology during chronic schistosomiasis. To address such controversy on the role of IL-4Rα, we generated a novel inducible IL-4Rα-deficient mouse model that allows for temporal knockdown of il-4rα gene after oral administration of Tamoxifen. Interrupting IL-4Rα mediated signaling during the acute phase impaired the development of protective type-2 immune responses, leading to rapid weight loss and premature death, confirming a protective role of IL-4Rα during acute schistosomiasis. Conversely, IL-4Rα removal at the chronic phase of schistosomiasis ameliorated the pathological fibro-granulomatous pathology and reversed liver scarification without affecting the host fitness. This amelioration of the morbidity was accompanied by a reduced Th2 response and increased frequencies of FoxP3+ Tregs and CD1dhiCD5+ Bregs. Collectively, these data demonstrate that IL-4Rα mediated signaling has two opposing functions during experimental schistosomiasis depending on the stage of advancement of the disease and indicate that interrupting IL-4Rα mediated signaling is a viable therapeutic strategy to ameliorate liver fibroproliferative pathology in diseases like chronic schistosomiasis.

Candidate gene polymorphisms study between human African trypanosomiasis clinical phenotypes in Guinea.

Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), a lethal disease induced by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, has a range of clinical outcomes in its human host in West Africa: an acute form progressing rapidly to second stage, spontaneous self-cure and individuals able to regulate parasitaemia at very low levels, have all been reported from endemic foci. In order to test if this clinical diversity is influenced by host genetic determinants, the association between candidate gene polymorphisms and HAT outcome was investigated in populations from HAT active foci in Guinea.

Expression of interferon-inducible chemokines and sleep/wake changes during early encephalitis in experimental African trypanosomiasis.

Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei, leads to neuroinflammation and characteristic sleep/wake alterations. The relationship between the onset of these alterations and the development of neuroinflammation is of high translational relevance, but remains unclear. This study investigates the expression of interferon (IFN)-γ and IFN-inducible chemokine genes in the brain, and the levels of CXCL10 in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid prior to and during the encephalitic stage of trypanosome infection, and correlates these with sleep/wake changes in a rat model of the disease.

A strategy for scaling up access to comprehensive care in adults with Chagas disease in endemic countries: The Bolivian Chagas Platform.

Bolivia has the highest prevalence of Chagas disease (CD) in the world (6.1%), with more than 607,186 people with Trypanosoma cruzi infection, most of them adults. In Bolivia CD has been declared a national priority. In 2009, the Chagas National Program (ChNP) had neither a protocol nor a clear directive for diagnosis and treatment of adults. Although programs had been implemented for congenital transmission and for acute cases, adults remained uncovered. Moreover, health professionals were not aware of treatment recommendations aimed at this population, and research on CD was limited; it was difficult to increase awareness of the disease, understand the challenges it presented, and adapt strategies to cope with it. Simultaneously, migratory flows that led Bolivian patients with CD to Spain and other European countries forced medical staff to look for solutions to an emerging problem.