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Occupational Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Dental Students' Perceptions of Risk Factors for Musculoskeletal Disorders: Adapting the Job Factors Questionnaire for Dentistry.

The aims of this study were to adapt the Job Factors Questionnaire to the field of dentistry, evaluate its psychometric properties, evaluate dental students' perceptions of work/study risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders, and determine the influence of gender and academic level on those perceptions. All 580 students enrolled in two Brazilian dental schools in 2015 were invited to participate in the study. A three-factor structure (Repetitiveness, Work Posture, and External Factors) was tested through confirmatory factor analysis. Convergent validity was estimated using the average variance extracted (AVE), discriminant validity was based on the correlational analysis of the factors, and reliability was assessed. A causal model was created using structural equation modeling to evaluate the influence of gender and academic level on students' perceptions. A total of 480 students completed the questionnaire for an 83% response rate. The responding students' average age was 21.6 years (SD=2.98), and 74.8% were women. Higher scores were observed on the Work Posture factor items. The refined model presented proper fit to the studied sample. Convergent validity was compromised only for External Factors (AVE=0.47), and discriminant validity was compromised for Work Posture and External Factors (r2=0.69). Reliability was adequate. Academic level did not have a significant impact on the factors, but the women students exhibited greater perception. Overall, the adaptation resulted in a useful instrument for assessing perceptions of risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders. Gender was found to significantly influence all three factors, with women showing greater perception of the risk factors.

Risk factors for work-related eczema and urticaria among vocational students of agriculture.

Farmers are at high risk of occupational skin diseases which may start already during vocational training. This study was aimed at identification of risk factors for work-related skin diseases among vocational students of agriculture.

Dissatisfaction with work as a risk factor of musculoskeletal complaints among foresters in Poland.

Researchers indicate an important relationship between the level of job satisfaction and the state of health of the employees. Some elements of work related with its character, organization, and interpersonal relationships may evoke strong stress, manifested by, among others, an increased musculoskeletal tension which, in turn, may lead to permanent dysfunction of this system.

Prevalence of bovine brucellosis in slaughtered cattle and barriers to better protection of abattoir workers in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria.

Brucellosis is a neglected zoonosis of public health importance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors of brucellosis among slaughtered cattle as well as challenges to the protection of abattoir workers in Nigeria.

Tort Law--Expert Testimony in Asbestos Litigation--District of South Carolina Holds the Every Exposure Theory Insufficient to Demonstrate Specific Causation Even If Legal Conclusions are Scientifically Sound.--Haskins v. 3m Co., Nos. 2:15-cv-02086, 3:15-cv-02123, 2017 WL 3118017 (D.S.C. July 21, 2017).

Prevalence of common mental disorders among sugarcane workers.

To estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders and to analyze the associated factors in migrant and sugarcane workers.

Analysis of possible factors of vocal interference during the teaching activity.

To measure the risk of dysphonia in teachers, as well as investigate whether the perceptual-auditory and acoustic aspects of the voice of teachers in situations of silence and noise, the signal-to-noise ratio, and the noise levels in the classroom are associated with the presence of dysphonia.

Functional polymorphisms in asporin and CILP together with joint loading predispose to hand osteoarthritis.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative joint disease afflicting people in the Western world and has a strong genetic influence. The aim of this study was to examine the association of two known functional polymorphisms in the TGF-β inhibiting genes, asporin (ASPN) and cartilage intermediate layer protein (CILP), with hand OA and potential gene-occupational hand loading interaction.

Work-Related Biomechanical Exposure and Job Strain as Separate and Joint Predictors of Musculoskeletal Diseases: A 28-Year Prospective Follow-up Study.

We investigated how work-related biomechanical exposure and job strain in midlife separately and jointly predicted back and degenerative musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs). A total of 6,257 employees participated in the Finnish Longitudinal Study on Aging Municipal Employees (FLAME) in 1981 and were followed up for 28 years. Risk ratios and the relative excessive risk due to interaction and 95% confidence intervals were modeled for separate and joint prediction estimates, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, job strain predicted degenerative MSDs among women after 4 and 11 years of follow-up. After 11 years, both exposures predicted both types of MSDs among men. Joint exposure predicted both types of MSDs after 4 years among women (for back MSDs, risk ratio (RR) = 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15, 2.18; for degenerative MSDs, RR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.07) and men (for back MSDs, RR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.15; for degenerative MSDs, RR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.16, 2.22) and both types of MSDs after 11 years (for back MSDs, RR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.43; for degenerative MSDs, RR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.25, 2.46) among men only, but the relative excessive risk due to interaction was not significant throughout. However, after 28 years, the separate and joint exposures did not predict MSDs. Workplace interventions should be focused on reducing job strain along with biomechanical exposure for possible prevention of MSDs in working life and around the time of retirement, but there may be other pathways of onset of MSDs in old age.

Caring for the Carers: Delivering peer-to-peer support and assessment following a traumatic incident.

Whole-system approaches to improving the health and wellbeing of healthcare workers: A systematic review.

Healthcare professionals throughout the developed world report higher levels of sickness absence, dissatisfaction, distress, and "burnout" at work than staff in other sectors. There is a growing call for the 'triple aim' of healthcare delivery (improving patient experience and outcomes and reducing costs; to include a fourth aim: improving healthcare staff experience of healthcare delivery. A systematic review commissioned by the United Kingdom's (UK) Department of Health reviewed a large number of international healthy workplace interventions and recommended five whole-system changes to improve healthcare staff health and wellbeing: identification and response to local need, engagement of staff at all levels, and the involvement, visible leadership from, and up-skilling of, management and board-level staff.

Devices for preventing percutaneous exposure injuries caused by needles in healthcare personnel.

Percutaneous exposure injuries from devices used for blood collection or for injections expose healthcare workers to the risk of blood borne infections such as hepatitis B and C, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Safety features such as shields or retractable needles can possibly contribute to the prevention of these injuries and it is important to evaluate their effectiveness.

Less Traveled: How ATCEMS chose a new path to fight worker fatigue.

Farming and mortality rates attributed to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Taiwan.

Previous studies suggested an elevated risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) among farmers. To date, no apparent study examined the association between farming and NHL in Asian countries. The aim of this study was to investigate whether farmers in Taiwan exhibited an increased risk of mortality attributed to NHL. To this end, a mortality odds ratio (MOR) study was conducted to estimate the relative risk of mortality attributed to NHL for farmers in Taiwan. Data on the decedents enrolled in this investigation were derived from the death certificate database for the period 1997-2009. The study group comprised individuals who died from NHL and who were 50 years or older. The control group consisted of subjects who died from all other causes, excluding cancers, in the corresponding age group. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to compute the MOR, with adjustments for gender, age at death, year of death, marital status, and urbanizational levels. Among 32,456 deceased farmers, 205 died due to NHL. Farmers were found to have a nonsignificantly higher MOR than nonfarmers. This risk estimate is similar to estimates in previous meta-analyses. The MOR for NHL was higher among farmers who died 65 years or older than among those who died at younger ages. The findings indicate that farming in Taiwan may increase the risk of death attributed to NHL. Exposure to pesticides might be an influential factor contributing to high risk of mortality attributed to NHL among farmers and therefore needs to be further investigated.

Effects of an alternating work shift on air traffic controllers and the relationship with excessive daytime sleepiness and stress.

To evaluate symptoms of stress and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in air traffic control (ATC) officers in Brazil.

Personality and interpersonal behaviour may impact on burnout in nurses.

Overview of Silica-Related Clusters in the United States: Will Fracking Operations Become the Next Cluster?

Silicosis is the oldest know occupational pulmonary disease. It is a progressive disease and any level of exposure to respirable crystalline silica particles or dust has the potential to develop into silicosis. Silicosis is caused by silica particles or dust entering the lungs and damaging healthy lung tissue. The damage restricts the ability to breathe. Exposure to silica increases a worker’s risk of developing cancer or tuberculosis. This special report will provide background history of silicosis in the U.S., including the number of workers affected and their common industries. Over the years, these industries have impeded government oversight, resulting in silicosis exposure clusters. The risk of acquiring silicosis is diminished when industry implements safety measures with oversight by governmental agencies. Reputable authorities believe that the current innovative drilling techniques such as fracking will generate future cases of silicosis in the U.S. if safety measures to protect workers are ignored.

Electronic health records contributing to physician burnout.

Doctors' mental health, burnout, and suicidality: Professional and ethical issues in the workplace.

Risk of early-onset prostate cancer associated with occupation in the Nordic countries.

Early-onset prostate cancer is often more aggressive and may have a different aetiology than later-onset prostate cancer, but has been relatively little studied to date. We evaluated occupation in relation to early- and later-onset prostate cancer in a large pooled study.

Burnout and Stress in Medicine in the 21st Century: Catastrophe or Opportunity?

Occupational lung diseases in Australia.

Occupational exposures are an important determinant of respiratory health. International estimates note that about 15% of adult-onset asthma, 15% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 10-30% of lung cancer may be attributable to hazardous occupational exposures. One-quarter of working asthmatics either have had their asthma caused by work or adversely affected by workplace conditions. Recently, cases of historical occupational lung diseases have been noted to occur with new exposures, such as cases of silicosis in workers fabricating kitchen benchtops from artificial stone products. Identification of an occupational cause of a lung disease can be difficult and requires maintaining a high index of suspicion. When an occupational lung disease is identified, this may facilitate a cure and help to protect coworkers. Currently, very little information is collected regarding actual cases of occupational lung diseases in Australia. Most assumptions about many occupational lung diseases are based on extrapolation from overseas data. This lack of information is a major impediment to development of targeted interventions and timely identification of new hazardous exposures. All employers, governments and health care providers in Australia have a responsibility to ensure that the highest possible standards are in place to protect workers' respiratory health.

Mesothelioma in Australia: a review.

The incidence of malignant mesothelioma in Australia is among the highest in the world as a result of widespread use of asbestos by industry and in construction throughout the 20th century. The risk of developing malignant mesothelioma after asbestos exposure is dose-related; a transient, low dose exposure confers a correspondingly very low risk of disease. Malignant mesothelioma is a heterogeneous disease, partly explaining the limited role of biomarkers in screening and diagnosis. The prognosis remains poor, and early advice on medico-legal compensation and a collaborative team approach to managing malignant mesothelioma are both essential. Chemotherapy can have a modest treatment effect in some people. New therapies, such as immunotherapy, do not yet have a defined role in the treatment of malignant mesothelioma. As treatment options for malignant mesothelioma are limited and no cure is available, there is no established role for early detection or screening of at risk populations. A multidisciplinary approach to caring for patients with malignant mesothelioma and their carers is vital.

Differences in agricultural activities related to incidence of scrub typhus between Korea and Japan.

The purpose of this study was to establish a basis for improving or strengthening the preventive strategy against scrub typhus in Korea by comparing and analyzing the difference of prevention behaviors contributing to the occurrence of scrub typhus in Japan and Korea.

Job strain may precipitate clinical depression.

Usefulness of high-speed digital imaging (HSDI) in the diagnosis of oedematous - hypertrophic changes of the larynx in people using voice occupationally.

The aim of the study is the evaluation of the usefulness of High-Speed Digital Imaging (HSDI) in the diagnosis of organic dysphonia in a form of oedematous-hypertrophic changes of vocal fold mucosa, morphologically confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) method in patients working with voice occupationally.

Women Firefighters and Workplace Harassment: Associated Suicidality and Mental Health Sequelae.

This cross-sectional study investigated the association between harassment, career suicidality, and psychiatric symptoms among women firefighters. Women firefighters (n = 290) completed self-report measures of experiences with harassment on the job, career suicidality, and various psychiatric symptoms. Logistic regression analyses and one-way analyses of variance were used to address study aims. Of the sample, 21.7% reported having experienced sexual harassment and 20.3% reported having been threatened or harassed in another way on their firefighting job. Sexual harassment and other threats/harassment on the job were both significantly associated with a greater likelihood of reporting career suicidal ideation, as well as reporting more severe psychiatric symptoms. Harassment and threats experienced on the job may be associated with increased suicide risk and more severe psychiatric symptoms among women firefighters. Efforts are needed to reduce the occurrence of harassment and threats within the fire service and provide support for women firefighters who have been harassed or threatened.

Advances in environmental and occupational disorders in 2016.

In this review we highlight recent studies that advance the knowledge and understanding of the effects of various environmental factors and associated immune responses in patients with allergic diseases. This review will focus on new literature regarding allergic and immune responses to a variety of environmental factors, including aeroallergens, stinging insects, fungi, pollutants, viral respiratory tract infections, climate change, and microbial exposures.

Gender Differences in the Reporting of Vocal Fatigue in Teachers as Quantified by the Vocal Fatigue Index.

Occupational voice users report higher instances of vocal health problems. Women, who are more likely than men to report voice problems, are the largest members of some occupational voice users, such as teachers. While a common complaint among this population is vocal fatigue, it has been difficult to quantify. Therefore, the goal of this study is to quantify vocal fatigue generally in school teachers and investigate any related gender differences.

Prevalence and Natural History of Superficial Siderosis: A Population-Based Study.

Superficial siderosis (SS) is characterized by hemosiderin deposition in the superficial layers of the central nervous system and can be seen during postmortem examination or with iron-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging techniques. The distribution of SS may predict the probable underlying cause. This study aimed to report the prevalence and natural history of SS in a population-based study.