A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Nervous System Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Magnetic Resonance-Guided Focused Ultrasound Versus Conventional Radiation Therapy for Painful Bone Metastasis: A Matched-Pair Study.

Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is an alternative local therapy for patients with painful bone metastasis for whom standard conventional radiation therapy (RT) has failed. However, the therapeutic effects of MRgFUS as a first-line treatment for bone metastasis remain uncertain.

Tendon Length, Calf Muscle Atrophy, and Strength Deficit After Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture: Long-Term Follow-up of Patients in a Previous Study.

In this prospective study, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess long-term Achilles tendon length, calf muscle volume, and muscle fatty degeneration after surgery for acute Achilles tendon rupture.

Pleuritic Chest Pain: Sorting Through the Differential Diagnosis.

Pleuritic chest pain is characterized by sudden and intense sharp, stabbing, or burning pain in the chest when inhaling and exhaling. Pulmonary embolism is the most common serious cause, found in 5% to 21% of patients who present to an emergency department with pleuritic chest pain. A validated clinical decision rule for pulmonary embolism should be employed to guide the use of additional tests such as d-dimer assays, ventilation-perfusion scans, or computed tomography angiography. Myocardial infarction, pericarditis, aortic dissection, pneumonia, and pneumothorax are other serious causes that should be ruled out using history and physical examination, electrocardiography, troponin assays, and chest radiography before another diagnosis is made. Validated clinical decision rules are available to help exclude coronary artery disease. Viruses are common causative agents of pleuritic chest pain. Coxsackieviruses, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza, parainfluenza, mumps, adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus are likely pathogens. Treatment is guided by the underlying diagnosis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are appropriate for pain management in those with virally triggered or nonspecific pleuritic chest pain. In patients with persistent symptoms, persons who smoke, and those older than 50 years with pneumonia, it is important to document radiographic resolution with repeat chest radiography six weeks after initial treatment.

Aseptic and Bacterial Meningitis: Evaluation, Treatment, and Prevention.

The etiologies of meningitis range in severity from benign and self-limited to life-threatening with potentially severe morbidity. Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency that requires prompt recognition and treatment. Mortality remains high despite the introduction of vaccinations for common pathogens that have reduced the incidence of meningitis worldwide. Aseptic meningitis is the most common form of meningitis with an annual incidence of 7.6 per 100,000 adults. Most cases of aseptic meningitis are viral and require supportive care. Viral meningitis is generally self-limited with a good prognosis. Examination maneuvers such as Kernig sign or Brudzinski sign may not be useful to differentiate bacterial from aseptic meningitis because of variable sensitivity and specificity. Because clinical findings are also unreliable, the diagnosis relies on the examination of cerebrospinal fluid obtained from lumbar puncture. Delayed initiation of antibiotics can worsen mortality. Treatment should be started promptly in cases where transfer, imaging, or lumbar puncture may slow a definitive diagnosis. Empiric antibiotics should be directed toward the most likely pathogens and should be adjusted by patient age and risk factors. Dexamethasone should be administered to children and adults with suspected bacterial meningitis before or at the time of initiation of antibiotics. Vaccination against the most common pathogens that cause bacterial meningitis is recommended. Chemoprophylaxis of close contacts is helpful in preventing additional infections.

Neuroprotective Effects of Eexenatide in a Rotenone-Induced Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease.

Several studies suggest an association between Parkinson's disease (PD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus; these 2 diseases are both known to affect the common molecular pathways. As a synthetic agonist for the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor, exenatide has been evaluated as a neuroprotective agent in multiple animal models. Rotenone models of PD have great potential for the investigation of PD pathology and motor and nonmotor symptoms, as well as the role of gene-environment interactions in PD causation and pathogenesis. Therefore, in this study, the neurochemical, behavioral and histologic effects of exenatide on a rotenone-induced rat model of PD were examined.

Reliability and validity of a brief sleep questionnaire for children in Japan.

There is a dearth of sleep questionnaires with few items and confirmed reliability and validity that can be used for the early detection of sleep problems in children. The aim of this study was to develop a questionnaire with few items and assess its reliability and validity in both children at high risk of sleep disorders and a community population.

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for postoperative pain control after total knee arthroplasty: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficiency and safety of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for pain control after total knee arthroplasty.

A meta-analysis of the preoperative use of gabapentinoids for the treatment of acute postoperative pain following spinal surgery.

Gabapentinoid drugs, which include gabapentin and pregabalin, play an established role in the management of neuropathic pain. However, whether preoperative administration of gabapentinoids has a beneficial role in controlling acute pain after spinal surgery is unknown. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the efficacy and safety of the preoperative use of gabapentinoids (gabapentin and pregabalin) for the treatment of acute postoperative pain following spinal surgery.

Clinical and angiographic outcomes following endovascular treatment of very small (3 mm or smaller) intracranial aneurysm: A single-center experience.

Treatments for very small (3 mm or smaller) intracranial aneurysms (VSAs) remain controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of endovascular treatment for VSAs and to evaluate clinical risk factors associated with complications.This retrospective study enrolled 82 VSA patients who underwent coil embolization in our institution. Angiographic outcomes were assessed according to the Meyers classification. The clinical results were evaluated using the modified Rankin scale (mRS) immediately after coiling, at discharge, and during follow-up. A Mann-Whitney U test was performed for non-normally distributed continuous variables. A Pearson χ test or Fisher's exact test was performed for categorical variables.Among 82 aneurysms, 54 were treated with stent-assisted coiling (SAC) embolization. Thromboembolic complications were seen in 2 patients (2.4%). Intraoperative rupture occurred in 4 patients (4.9%). Other adverse events occurred in 2 patients (2.4%). Two patients (2.4%) had permanent disabling neurologic deficit (mRS 3-6) because of complications. The overall mortality rate was 1.2%. Adverse events were correlated with the location of aneurysms (P = .02), Fisher grade (P = .01), and treatment experience (P = .03). Patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation and anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms were more likely to experience a higher incidence of complication. Thirty-five patients underwent angiographic follow-up. The complete occlusion rate improved from an immediate 37.8% to 80.0% at follow-up.In the short term, coiling is a safe and effective approach for the treatment of VSAs. SAC may be associated with a high rate of further occlusion during short-term follow-up. Endovascular treatment of VSAs at middle cerebral artery bifurcation or anterior communicating artery is associated with a higher incidence of complications.

Head Positioning in Acute Stroke.

Head Positioning in Acute Stroke.

Tuberculous meningoencephalitis revealed by psychiatric disorders: about a case.

Tuberculous meningoencephalitis is fairly frequent in endemic countries and it is the most severe form of tuberculosis. Therapeutic failure is common because of diagnostic delay. This delay is primarily due to a wide clinical polymorphism and, in particular, to misleading forms. We here report a rare clinical case of tuberculous meningitis in a patient in prodromal phase of psychosis.

Evaluation of the acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance system, Gokwe North district, Zimbabwe, 2015: a descriptive cross sectional study.

AFP surveillance was adopted globally as a key strategy for monitoring the progress of the polio eradication initiative. Gokwe North district with an estimated 119 655 children <15 years detected 2 cases, 4 cases and 1 case of AFP in 2012, 2013 and 2014 respectively against a target of 5 cases per year. We therefore set out to evaluate the system and find out why it was failing to detect at least 5 cases per year.

Post-ivermectin encephalopathy in Senegal: a case report.

Ivermectin is an ant parasitic drug used for combating onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. It works by inhibiting the function of neurons and muscles, thus causing paralysis of microfilariae. Side effects of this drug have been reported including post-ivermectin encephalopathy requiring emergency care in hospital. We report the case of a 35 years old patient living in rural areas of Senegal who presented two days after a mistake in administration of a second dose of ivermectin, headaches, altered consciousness and bilateral blindness. The workup revealed brain white matter lesions, abnormal liver function tests and biological inflammation without evidence of Loa loa microfilariae in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Corticosteroid treatment was administered in emergency and patient recovered despite the persistence of bilateral blindness. Inflammatory process seems to have an important role in the pathophysiology of this encephalopathy. We should therefore carefully control the administration of this drugs.

Aseptic meningitis following a bupivacaine spinal anesthesia.

Spinal anesthesia complicated by meningitis is rare. The diagnosis is difficult and the clinical signs are unspecific. There is a subgroup called aseptic meningitis of a different mechanism (hypersensitive reaction and irritation of the meninges), which must be identified for appropriate care. We report the case of aseptic meningitis resulting from bupivacaine use complicating spinal anesthesia. She is 31 years old and was admitted to the intensive care unit for meningitis following a Caesarean delivery. 10 hours after the procedure, she was found to have severe headache, neck stiffness and was found restless. She lost consciousness; she was treated by attending physicians. A CT scan have been performed and was found normal. 24 hours after intubation, the patient woke up. The clinical and biological valuations were normal, allowing for the elimination of the other causes of meningitis.

Prolactin-secreting microadenoma in menopausal women.

Prolactin-secreting adenoma is rare in elderly women. Patient's clinical picture may be confused with that of menopause, making diagnosis sometimes difficult. We report the case of a 57-year old woman with a 2-year history of secondary amenorrhea without hot flushes associated with galactorrhea in order to highlight the peculiarities of prolactin-secreting microadenomas. Physical examination confirmed the diagnosis of galactorrhoea and biology showed hyperprolactinemia at mIU/L, FSH = 15.1 IU/L and LH = 4,1 IU/L. Pituitary MRI showed left adenoma measuring 8 mm. Patient's evolution under dopaminergic treatment was marked by the recovery, for a transitional period, of mestrual cycles and the occurrence of hot flushes, normalization of prolactin levels and reduction of adenoma size.

Acromegaly features in the aging population.

Somatotroph adenomas are rare in the aging population. Diagnosis of somatotroph adenomas is often long delayed and they are characterized by atypical clinical picture. Their diagnostic criteria are similar to those used for younger patients. Surgery, if possible, is the treatment of choice for acromegaly in the elderly. Somatostatin analogues have shown to be effective in these patients. Prognosis is inversely correlated with patient's age, duration of disease and last GH level under treatment. Beside evolution of disease, age is a major determinant of mortality. We report three cases of elderly patients with acromegaly aged 75, 70 and 66 years respectively with a literature review.

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a rare case related to pregnancy.

We report the case of a 25-year old primipara whose pregnancy was complicated by idiopathic intracranial hypertension (ICHT) associated with visual impairment in the first quarter. She underwent lumboperitoneal shunt without obstetric consequences. This study aimed to determine the features of this rare pathological entity whose pathophysiological mechanism is poorly elucidated. It would be caused by poor absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) through the arachnoid granulations. Major risk factors are: obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome, thrombophilia and hyperfibrinolyse. Diagnosis is based on modified Dandy criteria after negative clinico-biological and radiological assessment. Visual prognosis is compromised, as in the case of « classical » ICHT. However, there is no risk for cerebral involvements which could be life-threatening. In addition, this disease does not influence pregnancy outcome. This said, rapid and effective treatment should be implemented in order to preserve visual function in these patients.

Primary cerebral gliosarcoma: about two cases and review of the literature.

Gliosarcoma is a very rare brain tumor accounting for 1.8 -8% of all glial tumors. It has been classified by the World Health Organization as a variant of glioblastoma. It is a tumor with double glial and sarcomatous component. Patient's clinical picture is polymorphic, imaging data are evocative, diagnosis is based on histology. Treatment is always surgical. Prognosis is closely linked to the quality of resection. We here report two clinical cases with the aim of assessing the diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic features of this rare entity.

Colony Stimulating Factor-1 Receptor Expressing Cells Infiltrating the Cornea Control Corneal Nerve Degeneration in Response to HSV-1 Infection.

Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) is a leading cause of neurotrophic keratitis, characterized by decreased or absent corneal sensation due to damage to the sensory corneal innervation. We previously reported the elicited immune response to infection contributes to the mechanism of corneal nerve regression/damage during acute HSV-1 infection. Our aim is to further establish the involvement of infiltrated macrophages in the mechanism of nerve loss upon infection.

Patent Foramen Ovale after Cryptogenic Stroke - Assessing the Evidence for Closure.

Patent Foramen Ovale Closure or Anticoagulation vs. Antiplatelets after Stroke.

Trials of patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure to prevent recurrent stroke have been inconclusive. We investigated whether patients with cryptogenic stroke and echocardiographic features representing risk of stroke would benefit from PFO closure or anticoagulation, as compared with antiplatelet therapy.

Long-Term Outcomes of Patent Foramen Ovale Closure or Medical Therapy after Stroke.

Whether closure of a patent foramen ovale reduces the risk of recurrence of ischemic stroke in patients who have had a cryptogenic ischemic stroke is unknown.

Head Positioning in Acute Stroke.

Head Positioning in Acute Stroke.

Patent Foramen Ovale Closure or Antiplatelet Therapy for Cryptogenic Stroke.

The efficacy of closure of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) in the prevention of recurrent stroke after cryptogenic stroke is uncertain. We investigated the effect of PFO closure combined with antiplatelet therapy versus antiplatelet therapy alone on the risks of recurrent stroke and new brain infarctions.

REM sleep behaviour disorder: not just a bad dream.

Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterised by the loss of the normal atonia during the REM stage of sleep, resulting in overt motor behaviours that usually represent the enactment of dreams. Patients will seek medical attention due to sleep-related injuries or unpleasant dream content. Idiopathic RBD which occurs independently of any other disease occurs in up to 2% of the older population. Meanwhile, secondary RBD is very common in association with certain neurodegenerative conditions. RBD can also occur in the context of antidepressant use, obstructive sleep apnoea and narcolepsy. RBD can be diagnosed with a simple screening question followed by confirmation with polysomnography to exclude potential mimics. Treatment for RBD is effective and involves treatment of underlying causes, modification of the sleep environment, and pharmacotherapy with either clonazepam or melatonin. An important finding in the past decade is the recognition that almost all patients with idiopathic RBD will ultimately go on to develop Parkinson disease or dementia with Lewy bodies. This suggests that idiopathic RBD represents a prodromal phase of these conditions. Physicians should be aware of the risk of phenoconversion. They should educate idiopathic RBD patients to recognise the symptoms of these conditions and refer as appropriate for further testing and enrolment into research trials focused on neuroprotective measures.

The circadian profile of epilepsy improves seizure forecasting.

It is now established that epilepsy is characterized by periodic dynamics that increase seizure likelihood at certain times of day, and which are highly patient-specific. However, these dynamics are not typically incorporated into seizure prediction algorithms due to the difficulty of estimating patient-specific rhythms from relatively short-term or unreliable data sources. This work outlines a novel framework to develop and assess seizure forecasts, and demonstrates that the predictive power of forecasting models is improved by circadian information. The analyses used long-term, continuous electrocorticography from nine subjects, recorded for an average of 320 days each. We used a large amount of out-of-sample data (a total of 900 days for algorithm training, and 2879 days for testing), enabling the most extensive post hoc investigation into seizure forecasting. We compared the results of an electrocorticography-based logistic regression model, a circadian probability, and a combined electrocorticography and circadian model. For all subjects, clinically relevant seizure prediction results were significant, and the addition of circadian information (combined model) maximized performance across a range of outcome measures. These results represent a proof-of-concept for implementing a circadian forecasting framework, and provide insight into new approaches for improving seizure prediction algorithms. The circadian framework adds very little computational complexity to existing prediction algorithms, and can be implemented using current-generation implant devices, or even non-invasively via surface electrodes using a wearable application. The ability to improve seizure prediction algorithms through straightforward, patient-specific modifications provides promise for increased quality of life and improved safety for patients with epilepsy.

Progression marker of Parkinson's disease: a 4-year multi-site imaging study.

Progression markers of Parkinson's disease are crucial for successful therapeutic development. Recently, a diffusion magnetic resonance imaging analysis technique using a bitensor model was introduced allowing the estimation of the fractional volume of free water within a voxel, which is expected to increase in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Prior work demonstrated that free water in the posterior substantia nigra was elevated in Parkinson's disease compared to controls across single- and multi-site cohorts, and increased over 1 year in Parkinson's disease but not in controls at a single site. Here, the goal was to validate free water in the posterior substantia nigra as a progression marker in Parkinson's disease, and describe the pattern of progression of free water in patients with a 4-year follow-up tested in a multicentre international longitudinal study of de novo Parkinson's disease ( The analyses examined: (i) 1-year changes in free water in 103 de novo patients with Parkinson's disease and 49 controls; (ii) 2- and 4-year changes in free water in a subset of 46 patients with Parkinson's disease imaged at baseline, 12, 24, and 48 months; (iii) whether 1- and 2-year changes in free water predict 4-year changes in the Hoehn and Yahr scale; and (iv) the relationship between 4-year changes in free water and striatal binding ratio in a subgroup of Parkinson's disease who had undergone both diffusion and dopamine transporter imaging. Results demonstrated that: (i) free water level in the posterior substantia nigra increased over 1 year in de novo Parkinson's disease but not in controls; (ii) free water kept increasing over 4 years in Parkinson's disease; (iii) sex and baseline free water predicted 4-year changes in free water; (iv) free water increases over 1 and 2 years were related to worsening on the Hoehn and Yahr scale over 4 years; and (v) the 4-year increase in free water was associated with the 4-year decrease in striatal binding ratio in the putamen. Importantly, all longitudinal results were consistent across sites. In summary, this study demonstrates an increase over 1 year in free water in the posterior substantia nigra in a large cohort of de novo patients with Parkinson's disease from a multi-site cohort study and no change in healthy controls, and further demonstrates an increase of free water in Parkinson's disease over the course of 4 years. A key finding was that results are consistent across sites and the 1-year and 2-year increase in free water in the posterior substantia nigra predicts subsequent long-term progression on the Hoehn and Yahr staging system. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that free water in the posterior substantia nigra is a valid, progression imaging marker of Parkinson's disease, which may be used in clinical trials of disease-modifying therapies.

Cerebral quantitative susceptibility mapping predicts amyloid-β-related cognitive decline.

See Derry and Kent (doi:10.1093/awx167) for a scientific commentary on this article.The large variance in cognitive deterioration in subjects who test positive for amyloid-β by positron emission tomography indicates that convergent pathologies, such as iron accumulation, might combine with amyloid-β to accelerate Alzheimer's disease progression. Here, we applied quantitative susceptibility mapping, a relatively new magnetic resonance imaging method sensitive to tissue iron, to assess the relationship between iron, amyloid-β load, and cognitive decline in 117 subjects who underwent baseline magnetic resonance imaging and amyloid-β positron emission tomography from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle study (AIBL). Cognitive function data were collected every 18 months for up to 6 years from 100 volunteers who were either cognitively normal (n = 64) or diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (n = 17) or Alzheimer's disease (n = 19). Among participants with amyloid pathology (n = 45), higher hippocampal quantitative susceptibility mapping levels predicted accelerated deterioration in composite cognition tests for episodic memory [β(standard error) = -0.169 (0.034), P = 9.2 × 10-7], executive function [β(standard error) = -0.139 (0.048), P = 0.004), and attention [β(standard error) = -0.074 (0.029), P = 0.012]. Deteriorating performance in a composite of language tests was predicted by higher quantitative susceptibility mapping levels in temporal lobe [β(standard error) = -0.104 (0.05), P = 0.036] and frontal lobe [β(standard error) = -0.154 (0.055), P = 0.006]. These findings indicate that brain iron might combine with amyloid-β to accelerate clinical progression and that quantitative susceptibility mapping could be used in combination with amyloid-β positron emission tomography to stratify individuals at risk of decline.