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Immune System Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Status of HIV Epidemic Control Among Adolescent Girls and Young Women Aged 15-24 Years - Seven African Countries, 2015-2017.

In 2016, an estimated 1.5 million females aged 15-24 years were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Eastern and Southern Africa, where the prevalence of HIV infection among adolescent girls and young women (3.4%) is more than double that for males in the same age range (1.6%) (1). Progress was assessed toward the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 2020 targets for adolescent girls and young women in sub-Saharan Africa (90% of those with HIV infection aware of their status, 90% of HIV-infected persons aware of their status on antiretroviral treatment [ART], and 90% of those on treatment virally suppressed [HIV viral load <1,000 HIV RNA copies/mL]) (2) using data from recent Population-based HIV Impact Assessment (PHIA) surveys in seven countries. The national prevalence of HIV infection in adolescent girls and young women aged 15-24 years, the percentage who were aware of their status, and among those persons who were aware, the percentage who had achieved viral suppression were calculated. The target for viral suppression among all persons with HIV infection is 73% (the product of 90% x 90% x 90%). Among all seven countries, the prevalence of HIV infection among adolescent girls and young women was 3.6%; among those in this group, 46.3% reported being aware of their HIV-positive status, and 45.0% were virally suppressed. Sustained efforts by national HIV and public health programs to diagnose HIV infection in adolescent girls and young women as early as possible to ensure rapid initiation of ART should help achieve epidemic control among adolescent girls and young women.

HIV Infection and HIV-Associated Behaviors Among Persons Who Inject Drugs - 20 Cities, United States, 2015.

In the United States, 9% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections diagnosed in 2015 were attributed to injection drug use (1). In 2015, 79% of diagnoses of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs occurred in urban areas (2). To monitor the prevalence of HIV infection and associated behaviors among persons who inject drugs, CDC's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) conducts interviews and HIV testing in selected metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) (3). The prevalence of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs in 20 MSAs in 2015 was 7%. In a behavioral analysis of HIV-negative persons who inject drugs, an estimated 27% receptively shared syringes and 67% had condomless vaginal sex in the previous 12 months. During the same period, 58% had tested for HIV infection and 52% received syringes from a syringe services program. Given the increased number of persons newly injecting drugs who are at risk for HIV infection because of the recent opioid epidemic (2,4), these findings underscore the importance of continuing and expanding health services, HIV prevention programs, and community-based strategies, such as those provided by syringe services programs, for this population.

Multiple Sclerosis.

Proliferative lupus nephritis in the absence of overt systemic lupus erythematosus: A historical study of 12 adult patients.

Severe lupus nephritis in the absence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a rare condition with an unclear clinical presentation and outcome.We conducted a historical observational study of 12 adult (age >18 years) patients with biopsy-proven severe lupus nephritis or lupus-like nephritis without SLE immunological markers at diagnosis or during follow-up. Excluded were patients with chronic infections with HIV or hepatitis B or C; patients with a bacterial infectious disease; and patients with pure membranous nephropathy. Electron microscopy was retrospectively performed when the material was available. End points were the proportion of patients with a complete response (urine protein to creatinine ratio <0.5 g/day and a normal or near-normal eGFR), partial response (≥50% reduction in proteinuria to subnephrotic levels and a normal or near-normal eGFR), or nonresponse at 12 months or later after the initiation of the treatment.The study included 12 patients (66% female) with a median age of 36.5 years. At diagnosis, median creatinine and proteinuria levels were 1.21 mg/dL (range 0.5-11.6) and 7.5 g/day (1.4-26.7), respectively. Six patients had nephrotic syndrome and acute kidney injury. Renal biopsy examinations revealed class III or class IV A/C lupus nephritis in all cases. Electron microscopy was performed on samples from 5 patients. The results showed mesangial and subendothelial dense deposits consistent with LN in 4 cases, and a retrospective diagnosis of pseudo-amyloid fibrillary glomerulonephritis was made in 1 patient.Patients received immunosuppressive therapy consisting of induction therapy followed by maintenance therapy, similar to treatment for severe lupus nephritis. Remission was recorded in 10 patients at 12 months after the initiation of treatment. One patient reached end-stage renal disease. After a median follow-up of 24 months, 2 patients relapsed.Lupus nephritis in the absence of overt SLE is a nosological entity requiring careful etiological investigation, including systematic electron microscopy examination of renal biopsies to rule out fibrillary glomerulonephritis. In this series, most patients presented with severe glomerulonephritis, which was highly similar to lupus nephritis at presentation and in terms of response to immunosuppressive therapy.

Secondary systemic lupus erythematosus after thymoma resection misdiagnosed as medically unexplained dyspnoea: A case report.

Secondary systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an exceedingly rare complication of thymoma resection and is difficult to diagnose because of the insidious and nonspecific clinical manifestations. A case of SLE that occurs secondary to thymoma resection is described in this report.

Male breast cancer and mantle cell lymphoma in a single patient: A case report and literature review.

Although still relatively rare, multiple primary malignant neoplasms (MPMNs) have been increasingly reported in recent years.

Horner syndrome as a postoperative complication after minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy: A case report.

Horner syndrome is an unusual complication after thyroidectomy.

EBV lymphoproliferative-associated disease and primary cardiac T-cell lymphoma in a STK4 deficient patient: A case report.

Primary cardiac lymphoma (PLC) is an extremely uncommon malignancy. PCL is more common in secondary immunodeficient patients. In this report, we describe a unique case of PLC who had been diagnosed as a STK4 deficient patient. This case is the first Primary immunodeficiency (PID) patient developing PCL in the world.

The correlational research among serum CXCL13 levels, circulating plasmablasts and memory B cells in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: A STROBE-compliant article.

We investigated whether serum CXC ligand 13 protein (CXCL13) levels correlate with the circulating plasmablasts and memory B-cells alteration in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. The diagnostic use of CXCL13 concentrations in active lupus was also analyzed.A total of 36 SLE patients and 18 healthy controls were included. Serum CXCL13 levels were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The frequency and absolute count of circulating plasmablasts and memory B cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC curves) were generated to analyze the utility of serum CXCL13 level and plasmablasts frequency as tools for the recognition of active SLE.Elevation of serum CXCL13 levels, higher plasmablasts frequency, and reduction of memory B-cells count were observed in SLE patients, compared with healthy controls. Interestingly, correlational analyses showed not only significantly positive association between CXCL13 levels and SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) or plasmablasts frequency, but an inverse correlation between CXCL13 concentration and memory B-cell count. ROC curves showed that serum CXCL13 level and plasmablasts frequency were practical in identifying active disease from overall SLE patients, with considerable accuracy.Serum CXCL13 levels correlate with the alteration of plasmablasts and memory B cells in SLE. CXCL13 may be used as a practical tool in judgment of active SLE.

Eliciting community perspectives on research with older adults living with HIV through focus groups.

Approximately half of all people living with HIV in the US are age 50 and older. Existing research highlights the health challenges of these individuals, but little work has focused on gathering input about concerns in participating in HIV and aging research. Prior to designing a prospective cohort study on HIV and aging, we elicited feedback from potential participants on general attitudes toward participation in a prospective HIV cohort study, and perspectives on important research topics relevant to older adults living with HIV.Three qualitative focus groups were formed.Three focus groups (5-7 participants each; N = 18) were held with older adults living with HIV. All discussions were audiorecorded and transcribed. Transcripts were analyzed using content analysis.Participants emphasized the importance of data confidentiality, shared concerns about study biases arising from sponsored research, and suggested that conflicts of interest should be independently assessed by "representative" boards made of community members. They urged researchers to be mindful of research "burnout," because many people with HIV participate in multiple research studies. A number of priority research areas emerged, including the gap in provision of end-of-life services.Many older adults with HIV are knowledgeable about the research process and offer valuable insights to researchers. Addressing participant concerns can facilitate inclusion and enhance HIV research success.

2017: a year in review.

Ofatumumab for TTP in a Patient with Anaphylaxis Associated with Rituximab.

Effect of Hydrolyzed Infant Formula vs Conventional Formula on Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: The TRIGR Randomized Clinical Trial.

Early exposure to complex dietary proteins may increase the risk of type 1 diabetes in children with genetic disease susceptibility. There are no intact proteins in extensively hydrolyzed formulas.

Reconstruction of the hip after resection of periacetabular oncological lesions: a systematic review.

Reconstruction of the acetabulum after resection of a periacetabular malignancy is technically challenging and many different techniques have been used with varying success. Our aim was to prepare a systematic review of the literature dealing with these techniques in order to clarify the management, the rate of complications and the outcomes.

Craniofacial morphology of HIV-positive children and adolescents undergoing antiretroviral therapy: A pilot study.

In this study, we aimed to analyze craniofacial morphology by assessing the skeletal cephalometric profiles of HIV-positive patients receiving antiretroviral therapy.

Risk factors for work-related eczema and urticaria among vocational students of agriculture.

Farmers are at high risk of occupational skin diseases which may start already during vocational training. This study was aimed at identification of risk factors for work-related skin diseases among vocational students of agriculture.

Diabetes, from the Origins of the Problem to the Nobel Prize. Bioethics.

Analysis of scientific works from the creation of an experimental model of diabetes before discovery insulin was done. Emphasized is the priority of the Russian pathologist L. W. Sobolew (1876-1919) in the discovery of the endocrine function of the pancreas in experimental animals - rabbits, dogs, cats. In 1923 Canadian scientists Banting and Macleod were awarded the Nobel prize for the discovery of insulin. However, the methods and the idea of Nobel laureates were the same that had been developed 20 years earlier by the Russian scientists. Currently, the incidence of diabetes and related pathologies of organs and systems are growing. The use of animals in experimental biology and medicine will continue for the foreseeable future. The benefits to science and medicine derived from the use of animals in research are undeniable, but this process inevitably increases the responsibility of researchers. It is required constant work on improvement of the experimental methods in order to minimize pain, stress, and the number of animals used in the experiment.

Talaromyces marneffei Infection.

Pathophysiology of Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease and Therapeutic Targets.

Obinutuzumab Treatment of Follicular Lymphoma.

Obinutuzumab Treatment of Follicular Lymphoma.

MBN 2016 Aesthetic Breast Meeting BIA-ALCL Consensus Conference Report.

Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) is an uncommon neoplasia occurring in women with either cosmetic or reconstructive breast implants. The actual knowledge about BIA-ALCL deriving from the literature presents several limits, and it remains difficult to make inferences about BIA-ALCL epidemiology, cause, and pathogenesis. This is the reason why the authors decided to organize an evidence-based consensus conference during the Maurizio Bruno Nava (MBN 2016) Aesthetic Breast Meeting held in Milan in December of 2016. Twenty key opinion leaders in the field of plastic surgery from all over the world have been invited to express and discuss their opinion about some key questions on BIA-ALCL, trying to reach a consensus about BIA-ALCL cause, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment in light of the actual best evidence.

22 Cases of Breast Implant-Associated ALCL: Awareness and Outcome Tracking from the Italian Ministry of Health.

To date, 359 cases of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) in women with breast implants (breast implant-associated ALCL [BIA-ALCL]) worldwide have been reported among more than 10 million patients who have received implants, but health care authorities suspect this is a possible underestimation, and the limited number of cases makes it difficult to clarify its cause. The General Directorate of Medical Devices and Pharmaceutical Services of the Italian Ministry of Health has examined and studied the Italian BIA-ALCL cases.

Paraneoplastic Auto-immune Hemolytic Anemia: An Unusual Sequela of Enteric Duplication Cyst.

Enteric duplication (ED) cysts are rare congenital anomalies of the alimentary canal that present in childhood. Although benign in most case, ED cysts have the potential to cause complications including a rare association with secondary carcinomas. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia presenting as a paraneoplastic syndrome secondary to solid tumors is an unusual phenomenon. Here we report a patient case with ED cyst described in association with intestinal adenocarcinoma and warm-auto immune hemolytic anemia, with resolution of the hemolysis upon its surgical resection.

Strong Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain 1 Expression Predicts Poor Outcome in Radiotherapy-treated Patients with Classical Hodgkin's Lymphoma.

Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) and prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) proteins control cellular oxygen homeostasis and a wide range of other processes.

Distribution of Curcumin and THC in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Isolated from Healthy Individuals and Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

Background/Aim: Curcumin is being widely investigated for its anticancer properties and studies in the literature suggest that curcumin distributes to a higher degree in tumor versus non-tumor cells. In the current study, we report on investigation of the distribution of curcumin and metabolism to THC in PBMC from healthy individuals and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients following exposure to Lipocurc™ (liposomal curcumin). Materials and Methods: The time and temperature-dependent distribution of liposomal curcumin and metabolism to tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) were measured in vitro in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from healthy individuals, PBMCHI(cryopreserved and freshly isolated PBMC) and CLL patients (cryopreserved PBMC) with lymphocyte counts ranging from 17-58×106 cells/ml (PBMCCLL,Grp 1) and >150×106 cells/ml (PBMCCLL,Grp 2). PBMC were incubated in plasma protein supplemented media with Lipocurc™ for 2-16 min at 37°C and 4°C and the cell and medium levels of curcumin determined by LC-MS/MS. Results: PBMC from CLL patients displayed a 2.2-2.6-fold higher distribution of curcumin compared to PBMCHICurcumin distribution into PBMCCLL, Grp 1/Grp 2 ranged from 384.75 - 574.50 ng/g w.w. of cell pellet and was greater compared to PBMCHIthat ranged from 122.27-220.59 ng/g w.w. of cell pellet following incubation for up to 15-16 min at 37°C. The distribution of curcumin into PBMCCLL,Grp 2 was time-dependent in comparison to PBMCHIwhich did not display a time-dependence and there was no temperature-dependence for curcumin distribution in either cell type. Curcumin was metabolized to THC in PBMC. The metabolism of curcumin to THC was not markedly different between PBMCHI(range=23.94-42.04 ng/g w.w. cell pellet) and PBMCCLL,Grp 1/Grp 2 (range=23.08-48.22 ng/g. w.w. cell pellet). However, a significantly greater time and temperature-dependence was noted for THC in PBMCCLL,Grp 2 compared to PBMCHIConclusion: Curcumin distribution into PBMC from CLL patients was higher compared to PBMC from healthy individuals, while metabolism to THC was similar. The potential for a greater distribution of curcumin into PBMC from CLL patients may be of therapeutic benefit.

A systems-based assessment of the PrePex device adverse events active surveillance system in Zimbabwe.

Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) is an effective method for HIV prevention and the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended its expansion in 14 African countries with a high prevalence of HIV and low prevalence of male circumcision. The WHO has recently pre-qualified the PrePex device, a non-surgical male circumcision device, which reduces procedure time, can increase acceptability of VMMC, and can expand the set of potential provider cadres. The PrePex device was introduced in Zimbabwe as a way to scale-up VMMC services in the country. With the rapid scale-up of the PrePex device, as well as other similar devices, a strong surveillance system to detect adverse events (AE) is needed to monitor the safety profile of these devices. We performed a systems-based evaluation of the PrePex device AE active surveillance system in Zimbabwe.

Characterization of the acute inflammatory profile and resolution of airway inflammation after Igf1r-gene targeting in a murine model of HDM-induced asthma.

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by bronchial hyperresponsiveness, mucus overproduction and airway remodeling. Notably, we have recently demonstrated that insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) deficiency in mice attenuates airway hyperresponsiveness and mucus secretion after chronic house dust mite (HDM) exposure. On this basis, inbred C57BL/6 and Igf1r-deficient mice were given HDM extract to study the acute inflammatory profile and implication of Igf1r in acute asthma pathobiology. Additionally, Igf1r-deficiency was therapeutically induced in mice to evaluate the resolution of HDM-induced inflammation. Acute HDM exposure in inbred C57BL/6 mice led to a progressive increase in inflammation, airway remodeling and associated molecular indicators. Preventively-induced Igf1r-deficiency showed reduced neutrophil and eosinophil numbers in BALF and bone marrow, a significant reduction of airway remodeling and decreased levels of related markers. In addition, therapeutic targeting of Igf1r promoted the resolution of HDM-induced-inflammation. Our results demonstrate for the first time that Igf1r is important in acute asthma pathobiology and resolution of HDM-induced inflammation. Thus, IGF1R is suggested to be a promising candidate for future therapeutic approaches for the treatment and prevention of asthma.

Aerobic capacity over 16 years in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Relationship to disease activity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

The aim of this study was to analyse the change in aerobic capacity from disease onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) over 16.2 years, and its associations with disease activity and cardiovascular risk factors. Twenty-five patients (20 f/5 m), diagnosed with RA 1995-2002 were tested at disease onset and after mean 16.2 years. Parameters measured were: sub-maximal ergometer test for aerobic capacity, functional ability, self-efficacy, ESR, CRP and DAS28. At follow-up, cardiovascular risk factors were assessed as blood lipids, glucose concentrations, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), body composition, pulse wave analysis and carotid intima-media thickness. Aerobic capacity [median (IQR)] was 32.3 (27.9-42.1) ml O2/kg x min at disease onset, and 33.2 (28.4-38.9) at follow-up (p>0.05). Baseline aerobic capacity was associated with follow-up values of: BMI (rs = -.401, p = .047), waist circumference (rs = -.498, p = .011), peripheral pulse pressure (rs = -.415, p = .039) self-efficacy (rs = .420, p = .037) and aerobic capacity (rs = .557, p = .004). In multiple regression models adjusted for baseline aerobic capacity, disease activity at baseline and over time predicted aerobic capacity at follow-up (AUC DAS28, 0-24 months; β = -.14, p = .004). At follow-up, aerobic capacity was inversely associated with blood glucose levels (rs = -.508, p = .016), BMI (rs = -.434, p = .030), body fat% (rs = -.419, p = .037), aortic pulse pressure (rs = -.405, p = .044), resting heart rate (rs = -.424, p = .034) and self-efficacy (rs = .464, p = .020) at follow-up. We conclude that the aerobic capacity was maintained over 16 years. High baseline aerobic capacity associated with favourable measures of cardiovascular risk factors at follow-up. Higher disease activity in early stages of RA predicted lower aerobic capacity after 16.2 years.

"It was pain. That's it. It was pain." Lack of oral health care among otherwise healthy young adults living with HIV in South Africa: A qualitative study.

The purpose of this study is to understand engagement with and availability of dental services among people living with HIV in a low-income community of South Africa.