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Hemic and Lymphatic Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Eosinophilic Myocarditis: Characteristics, Treatment, and Outcomes.

Eosinophilic myocarditis (EM) is an acute life-threatening inflammatory disease of the heart. Neither large case series nor clinical trials on this specific myocarditis have been reported.

Hepatitis B virus infection in an HBsAb-positive lymphoma patient who received chemotherapy: A case report.

Tumor chemotherapy could weaken the immune system of patients, which might enhance the body sensitivities to the exogenous pathogens, among which the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection should be concerned because of the higher chances of infection and the severe outcomes, especially in East Asia. The titer level of hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) higher than 10 IU/L is considered to offer immunocompetent individuals adequate protection. However, whether this level is enough to the tumor patients during chemotherapy remains unclear.

The relationship between iron bone marrow stores and response to treatment in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Iron is an intracellular element whose accumulation in the body is associated with tissue damage. This study examines the effect of iron on pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and its "response to treatment." At the end of the first year of treatment, bone marrow iron store (BMIS) was evaluated in children with ALL and the relationship between iron store and minimal residual disease was investigated. Moreover, the 3-year disease-free survival (3-DFS) of patients was determined. Patients' BMIS were compared with that of subjects with normal bone marrow. The study examined 93 children, including 78 Pre-B and 15 T-cell ALL patients. BMIS did not differ between the children with ALL and those with no evidence of cancer. BMIS was increased in 26.6% of patients at the end of the first year of treatment. Drug resistance and BM relapses were more prevalent in cases with high BMIS in both Pre-B and T-cell groups. Bone marrow iron store is not considered a risk factor for childhood ALL. However, high levels of BMIS are associated with poor response to treatment and the risk of relapse. Bone marrow iron store control during treatment can therefore help achieve better outcomes and improve the chances of recovery.

Clinical features of secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis associated with myelodysplastic syndrome: Two case reports.

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare lung disorder characterized by the abnormal accumulation of alveolar surfactant protein in alveolar spaces. Secondary PAP can result from myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).

Circling Back for the Diagnosis.

Liposuction for Swelling in Patients with Lymphedema.

Tocilizumab for the Treatment of SLC29A3 Mutation Positive PHID Syndrome.

Pigmentary hypertrichosis and non-autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (PHID) is associated with recessive mutations in SLC29A3, encoding the equilibrative nucleoside transporter hENT3 expressed in mitochondria, causing PHID and H syndromes, familial Rosai-Dorfman disease, and histiocytosis-lymphadenopathy-plus syndrome. Autoinflammation is increasingly recognized in these syndromes. We previously reported a 16-year-old girl with PHID syndrome associated with severe autoinflammation that was recalcitrant to interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α blockade. Tocilizumab is a humanized, monoclonal, anti-human interleukin-6 receptor antibody routinely used to treat arthritis in children and adults. Herein we report the first case of successful treatment of PHID syndrome using tocilizumab. Before commencing tocilizumab, there was evidence of significant systemic inflammation, and progressive sclerodermatous changes (physician global assessment [PGA] 7/10). Twelve weeks after starting tocilizumab (8 mg/kg every 2 weeks, intravenously) systemic inflammatory symptoms improved, and acute phase response markers normalized; serum amyloid A reduced from 178 to 8.4 mg/L. After a dose increase to 12 mg/kg every 2 weeks her energy levels, appetite, fevers, and night sweats further improved. Less skin tightness (PGA 5/10) was documented 12 months later. This excellent clinical and serological response was sustained over 48 months, and cutaneous sclerosis had improved further (PGA 3/10). Her height remained well below the 0.4th centile, and tocilizumab also had no impact on her diabetes or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Although the mechanism of autoinflammation of PHID remains uncertain, we suggest that tocilizumab should be the first choice when considering treatment of the autoinflammatory or cutaneous manifestations of this genetic disease.

RAMP1 signaling improves lymphedema and promotes lymphangiogenesis in mice.

Secondary lymphedema commonly arises as a complication of cancer surgery and radiation treatment; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) forms a complex with calcitonin receptor-like receptor to generate the receptor for calcitonin gene-related peptide. The present study examined whether RAMP1 plays a role in increased lymphangiogenesis during secondary lymphedema.

Sclerotherapy for splenic cysts in children.

Sclerotherapy has been described as a treatment option for nonparasitic pediatric splenic cysts; however, there are limited data on its long-term effectiveness.

Eosinophilic Lung Disease.

Eosinophils are involved in the pathogenesis of a number of lung diseases. Recent advances in eosinophil biology have now produced clinically applicable therapies that seek to counter eosinophilia in blood and lungs. This article reviews the basic biology of eosinophils and their role in mediating T-helper 2 cell responses. The current status of anticytokine therapy for eosinophilic lung disease is discussed. A clinical approach to eosinophilic lung disease based on symptoms and radiography is generated. The clinical significance of persistent eosinophilia in lung transplant patients and patients with asthma will receive special emphasis.

Bipolar Radiofrequency Ablation (Coblation) of External Auditory Canal Lymphatic Malformation and Other Soft Stenoses.

Soft tissue occlusion of the external auditory canal (EAC) can cause intense pruritis, recurrent foul smelling otorrhea, recurrent otitis externa, and conductive hearing loss. Occlusion of the EAC can be challenging to treat as the area is prone to circumferential scarring.

Ruxolitinib vs best available therapy for ET intolerant or resistant to hydroxycarbamide.

Treatments for high-risk essential thrombocythemia (ET) address thrombocytosis, disease-related symptoms, as well as risks of thrombosis, hemorrhage, transformation to myelofibrosis, and leukemia. Patients resistant/intolerant to hydroxycarbamide (HC) have a poor outlook. MAJIC (ISRCTN61925716) is a randomized phase 2 trial of ruxolitinib (JAK1/2 inhibitor) vs best available therapy (BAT) in ET and polycythemia vera patients resistant or intolerant to HC. Here, findings of MAJIC-ET are reported, where the modified intention-to-treat population included 58 and 52 patients randomized to receive ruxolitinib or BAT, respectively. There was no evidence of improvement in complete response within 1 year reported in 27 (46.6%) patients treated with ruxolitinib vs 23 (44.2%) with BAT (P = .40). At 2 years, rates of thrombosis, hemorrhage, and transformation were not significantly different; however, some disease-related symptoms improved in patients receiving ruxolitinib relative to BAT. Molecular responses were uncommon; there were 2 complete molecular responses (CMR) and 1 partial molecular response in CALR-positive ruxolitinib-treated patients. Transformation to myelofibrosis occurred in 1 CMR patient, presumably because of the emergence of a different clone, raising questions about the relevance of CMR in ET patients. Grade 3 and 4 anemia occurred in 19% and 0% of ruxolitinib vs 0% (both grades) in the BAT arm, and grade 3 and 4 thrombocytopenia in 5.2% and 1.7% of ruxolitinib vs 0% (both grades) of BAT-treated patients. Rates of discontinuation or treatment switching did not differ between the 2 trial arms. The MAJIC-ET trial suggests that ruxolitinib is not superior to current second-line treatments for ET. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as #ISRCTN61925716.

Pregnancy, thrombophilia, and the risk of a first venous thrombosis: systematic review and bayesian meta-analysis.

Objective To provide evidence to support updated guidelines for the management of pregnant women with hereditary thrombophilia in order to reduce the risk of a first venous thromboembolism (VTE) in pregnancy.Design Systematic review and bayesian meta-analysis.Data sources Embase, Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar from inception through 14 November 2016.Review methods Observational studies that reported on pregnancies without the use of anticoagulants and the outcome of first VTE for women with thrombophilia were eligible for inclusion. VTE was considered established if it was confirmed by objective means, or when the patient had received a full course of a full dose anticoagulant treatment without objective testing. Results 36 studies were included in the meta-analysis. All thrombophilias increased the risk for pregnancy associated VTE (probabilities ≥91%). Regarding absolute risks of pregnancy associated VTE, high risk thrombophilias were antithrombin deficiency (antepartum: 7.3%, 95% credible interval 1.8% to 15.6%; post partum: 11.1%, 3.7% to 21.0%), protein C deficiency (antepartum: 3.2%, 0.6% to 8.2%; post partum: 5.4%, 0.9% to 13.8%), protein S deficiency (antepartum: 0.9%, 0.0% to 3.7%; post partum: 4.2%; 0.7% to 9.4%), and homozygous factor V Leiden (antepartum: 2.8%, 0.0% to 8.6%; post partum: 2.8%, 0.0% to 8.8%). Absolute combined antepartum and postpartum risks for women with heterozygous factor V Leiden, heterozygous prothrombin G20210A mutations, or compound heterozygous factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations were all below 3%. Conclusions Women with antithrombin, protein C, or protein S deficiency or with homozygous factor V Leiden should be considered for antepartum or postpartum thrombosis prophylaxis, or both. Women with heterozygous factor V Leiden, heterozygous prothrombin G20210A mutation, or compound heterozygous factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutation should generally not be prescribed thrombosis prophylaxis on the basis of thrombophilia and family history alone. These data should be considered in future guidelines on pregnancy associated VTE risk.

Thrombosis after liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma.

The influence of thrombosis on the prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after liver transplantation (LT) and the role of the commonest inherited thrombophilia abnormalities factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A in the development of thrombosis are unknown. We investigated a cohort of patients who underwent LT for HCC with the aim to estimate the incidence rate (IR) of thrombosis, its influence on mortality and re-transplantation rates and, in the frame of a nested case-control study, the role of thrombophilia in donors and recipients for the development of thrombosis. Four-hundred and thirty patients underwent LT and were followed for a median of 7.2 years. Twenty-six recipients (6%) developed thrombosis (IR 1.06 [95%CI: 0.71-1.53] per 100 pts-yr). Mortality rate after LT was 3.95 (95%CI: 3.22-4.79) per 100 pts-yr and was not influenced by thrombosis. Re-transplantation was planned for 33 patients and was more common in patients with thrombosis than in those without (HR 2.50 [95%CI: 0.87-7.17]). The risk of thrombosis was 4 times higher in recipients with thrombophilia than in those without (OR 4.23 [95%CI: 0.99-18.04]) and 6 times higher when the analysis was restricted to venous thrombosis (OR 6.26 [95%CI: 1.19-32.85]). The presence of inherited thrombophilia in the donors did not increase the risk of thrombosis of the recipient. In conclusion, thrombosis is a complication of 6% of patients transplanted for HCC and increases the risk of re-transplantation but not of mortality. The risk of thrombosis, particularly venous, is increased in the presence of thrombophilia abnormalities in the recipients.

Mixed-Phenotype Acute Leukemia: Diagnostic Criteria and Pitfalls.

Mixed-phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) is a heterogeneous category in the World Health Organization classification that comprises acute leukemias with discrete admixed populations of myeloid and lymphoid blasts ("bilineal") or with extensive coexpression of lymphoid and myeloid markers in a single blast population ("biphenotypic"). Flow cytometric findings suggestive of MPAL are often met with consternation by pathologists and oncologists alike, owing to unfamiliarity with the disease and uncertainty about how MPAL fits into established paradigms for treatment of acute leukemia. The purpose of this review is to explain the diagnostic criteria for MPAL, summarize its biological and clinical features, and address common diagnostic pitfalls of these unusual leukemias.

Primary Cutaneous Acral CD8(+) T-Cell Lymphoma.

Primary cutaneous acral CD8(+) T-cell lymphoma is a new provisional entity in the 2016 revision of the World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms. This is a challenging diagnosis because of its rarity, as well as its morphologic and immunophenotypic overlap with other CD8(+) cytotoxic lymphoid proliferations. Appropriate classification of this entity is crucial because of its indolent clinical behavior compared with other CD8(+) T-cell lymphomas. Knowledge of the clinical setting, sites of involvement, and morphologic features can aid in correct diagnosis. Here, we review the clinical and pathologic features of primary cutaneous acral CD8(+) T-cell lymphoma with an emphasis on the differential diagnosis among other C8(+) T-cell lymphomas.

Successful eltrombopag treatment of severe refractory thrombocytopenia in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia: Two cases reports: A CARE-compliant article.

Thrombocytopenia in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is usually attributed to impaired marrow production resulting from cytotoxic drug use or CMML itself ("CMML-induced thrombocytopenia"). In very rare cases, immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) can be a complication of CMML ("CMML-associated ITP"). However, treatment of severe thrombocytopenia in patients with CMML is still a challenge.

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome induced by CblC subtype of methylmalonic academia: A case report and literature review.

Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is a common organic acidemia, mainly due to methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM) or its coenzyme cobalamin (VitB12) metabolic disorders. Cobalamin C (CblC) type is the most frequent inborn error of cobalamin metabolism; it can develop symptoms in childhood and often combine multisystem damage, which leads to methylmalonic acid, propionic acid, methyl citrate, and other metabolites abnormal accumulation, causing nerve, liver, kidney, bone marrow, and other organ damage.

Human herpes virus 8-unrelated primary effusion lymphoma-like lymphoma presenting with cardiac tamponade: A case report.

Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare disease of lymphomatous effusion in the body cavities in the absence of detectable mass and lymphadenopathy. PEL is predominantly related to the immunosuppressed patients infected with human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8). PEL-like lymphoma is negative for HHV-8 and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) unlike PEL. The pathogenesis and prognosis of PEL-like lymphoma are unclear and there is no established treatment yet.

Treatment, prognostic markers, and survival in thymic neuroendocrine tumors: A single center experience of 41 patients.

Neuroendocrine tumors of the thymus (NETTs) are rare but aggressive, and lead to poor overall survival. This retrospective study was designed to analyze factors that correlate with the prognosis of patients with NETTs.From 1999 to 2015, 41 ongoing patients with NETTs were enrolled in this study. The clinical data and outcome were compiled. Overall survival (OS) rate was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method in univariate analysis and the Cox-model was used in multivariate analysis.Of the 41 NETTs patients analyzed (31 male and 10 female), 12 were typical carcinoma, 14 were atypical carcinoma, 14 were small-cell carcinoma and, 1 was large-cell carcinoma. The median follow-up time was 29 months (range, 9.0-69.0). In total, 25 patients died of cancer-related disease by the last follow-up. The 3- and 5-year survival rates for all patients were 42.7% and 23.4%, respectively. Among the prognostic factors analyzed by multivariate analysis, low tumor grade, complete resection, and a negative chromogranin A (CgA) expression were positively correlated with survival.The surgical treatment of NETTs, CgA negative, and low grade of NETTs were associated with a statistically significant better prognosis. However, large, multicenter studies are required to fully validate these prognostic factors.

Dural Venous Sinus Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism Following Immunoglobulin Treatment in Pediatric Patient With Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura.

Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a widely used agent as the first choice of treatment of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). IVIG has several side effects, but it is a relatively safe treatment. Life-threatening thrombosis has been reported in adults and rarely in children. We report a case of a 14-year-old boy with dural venous sinus thrombosis and pulmonary embolism after treatment with IVIG for ITP. The patient was treated with low-molecular-weight heparin followed by warfarin and the symptoms were recovered. If a patient with ITP shows mental change or respiratory difficulty, we should consider thrombosis as well as hemorrhage.

Elevated Serum Interleukin-6 Predicts Favorable Response to Immunosuppressive Therapy in Children With Aplastic Anemia.

Immunosuppressive therapy (IST) is the standard treatment for aplastic anemia (AA) children who lack a sibling donor, but the clinical response rate to IST varies. Predictors of response to IST are valuable for stratifying AA patients and making clinical decisions.

Low Expression of miR-18a as a Characteristic of Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) occurs in both adults and children but the response to chemotherapy and survival is significantly worse in the adults. We aimed to study whether the expression of immune system-associated miRNAs would differ between adult and pediatric patients with ALL at the time of diagnosis.

Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase pharmacogenetics for predicting fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity in the randomised, phase III adjuvant TOSCA trial in high-risk colon cancer patients.

Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) catabolises ∼85% of the administered dose of fluoropyrimidines. Functional DPYD gene variants cause reduced/abrogated DPD activity. DPYD variants analysis may help for defining individual patients' risk of fluoropyrimidine-related severe toxicity.

Motor skill delays in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation therapy as an important risk factor.

CNS-directed therapies for the treatment of leukemia can adversely affect the acquisition of new skills, such as reading/writing and math. Two years after the end of treatments, children show gross and fine motor skill delays that may persist even when patients are considered healed. The goal of the present study was to assess motor skills difficulties in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment. Particular attention has been paid to those patients who had undergone Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) and to the relationship between motor delays and age bands. Participants were 60 children (median age of 5; inter quartile range: 3.07-5.76), including 31 females and 29 males, 91.7% of them were affected by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 8.3% by acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Five children had undergone HCST. Parents were interviewed by Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) on children's motor skills and filled in the Italian Temperament Questionnaire (QUIT). VABS's total scores were converted into equivalent mental age scores (EMA). A score difference of at least three months between current age and equivalent mental age was considered a developmental delay. Non-parametric analyses were run to understand if HSCT treatment and a specific age band influence children's motor skills. Significant delays were found in global motor skills (56.7%) as well as in fine and gross motor domains. Mann Whitney U tests showed that children with HSCT were reported to have lower gross motor mean ranks (U = 62; p = 0.004; Mean rank = 15.40) than peers without HSCT (Mean rank = 31.87) and lower mean rank values on motor temperament scale (U = 9; p = 0.003; HSCT Mean rank = 4.75 versus no HSCT Mean rank = 27.81). Kruskal Wallis' tests identified the high risk treatment showing that HSCT experience negatively impacted the motor skills and temperamental motor activity of pre-school children one year after the diagnosis of leukemia.

Translating Research into Reality: Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis from Haiti.

Research provides the essential foundation of disease elimination programs, including the global program to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (GPELF). The development and validation of new diagnostic tools and intervention strategies, critical steps in the evolution of GPELF, required a global effort. Lymphatic filariasis research in Haiti involved many partners and was directly linked to the development of the national elimination program and to the success achieved to date. Ongoing research efforts involving many partners will continue to be important in resolving the challenges faced by the program today in its final efforts to achieve elimination.

Therapeutics targeting Bcl-2 in hematological malignancies.

Members of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) gene family are attractive targets for cancer therapy as they play a key role in promoting cell survival, a long-since established hallmark of cancer. Clinical utility for selective inhibition of specific anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins has recently been realized with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of venetoclax (formerly ABT-199/GDC-0199) in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with 17p deletion. Despite the impressive monotherapy activity in CLL, such responses have rarely been observed in other B-cell malignancies, and preclinical data suggest that combination therapies will be needed in other indications. Additional selective antagonists of Bcl-2 family members, including Bcl-XL and Mcl-1, are in various stages of preclinical and clinical development and hold the promise of extending clinical utility beyond CLL and overcoming resistance to venetoclax. In addition to direct targeting of Bcl-2 family proteins with BH3 mimetics, combination therapies that aim at down-regulating expression of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members or restoring expression of pro-apoptotic BH3 family proteins may provide a means to deepen responses to venetoclax and extend the utility to additional indications. Here, we review recent progress in direct and selective targeting of Bcl-2 family proteins for cancer therapy and the search for rationale combinations.

In Vitro Antileukemic Activity of Formamidine Epidoxorubicin Analogs.

Epidoxorubicin is an anthracycline agent. The present study was undertaken to compare the antileukemic potential of epidoxorubicin and its two formamidine analogs containing either a morpholine moiety (EPIFmor) or a hexamethyleneimine moiety (EPIFhex) in the amidine group.

MYD88 Inhibitor ST2825 Suppresses the Growth of Lymphoma and Leukaemia Cells.

Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MYD88), which activates the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway, is important for the growth of lymphoma and leukaemia cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of ST2825, a synthetic peptidomimetic compound which inhibits MYD88 homodimerization, on their growth.

BMI1 Inhibitors Down-regulate NOTCH Signaling and Suppress Proliferation of Acute Leukemia Cells.

B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI1) is up-regulated in several cancers; therefore, we investigated the effects of BMI1 inhibitors on leukemia cells.