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Endocrine System Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Insulin resistance and reduced metabolic flexibility: cause or consequence of NAFLD?

Whether non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) precedes insulin resistance (IR) or IR preludes/causes NAFLD has been long debated. Recent studies have shown that there are two phenotypes of NAFLD, 'genetic' vs 'metabolic' NAFLD. The former patients are more at risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and chronic liver disease the latter are more IR and at increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Even if they are not yet diabetics, from a metabolic point of view having NAFLD is equivalent to T2D with reduced peripheral glucose disposal and impaired suppression of hepatic glucose production, but without fasting hyperglycaemia. T2D develops only when hepatic autoregulation is lost and glucose production exceeds the capacity of muscle glucose disposal.In NAFLD adipocytes are resistant to the effect of insulin, lipolysis is increased and excess plasma free fatty acids (FFA) are taken up by other organs (mainly liver) where they are stored as lipid droplets or oxidized. Increased adiposity is associated with worsen severity of both 'genetic' and 'metabolic' NAFLD. FFA oxidative metabolism is increased in NAFLD and not shifted towards glucose during insulin infusion. Although this reduced metabolic flexibility is an early predictor of T2D, it can be seen also as a protective mechanism against excess FFA.In conclusion, IR precedes and causes 'metabolic' NAFLD, but not 'genetic' NAFLD. Reduced metabolic flexibility in NAFLD might be seen as a protective mechanism against FFA overflow, but together with IR remains a strong risk factor for T2D that develops with the worsening of hepatic regulation of glucose production.

Incidence of End-Stage Renal Disease Attributed to Diabetes Among Persons with Diagnosed Diabetes - United States and Puerto Rico, 2000-2014.

During 2014, 120,000 persons in the United States and Puerto Rico began treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (i.e., kidney failure requiring dialysis or transplantation) (1). Among these persons, 44% (approximately 53,000 persons) had diabetes listed as the primary cause of ESRD (ESRD-D) (1). Although the number of persons initiating ESRD-D treatment each year has increased since 1980 (1,2), the ESRD-D incidence rate among persons with diagnosed diabetes has declined since the mid-1990s (2,3). To determine whether ESRD-D incidence has continued to decline in the United States overall and in each state, the District of Columbia (DC), and Puerto Rico, CDC analyzed 2000-2014 data from the U.S. Renal Data System and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. During that period, the age-standardized ESRD-D incidence among persons with diagnosed diabetes declined from 260.2 to 173.9 per 100,000 diabetic population (33%), and declined significantly in most states, DC, and Puerto Rico. No state experienced an increase in ESRD-D incidence rates. Continued awareness of risk factors for kidney failure and interventions to improve diabetes care might sustain and improve these trends.

Malignant pheochromocytoma with multiple vertebral metastases causing acute incomplete paralysis during pregnancy: Literature review with one case report.

We present a rare case of malignant pheochromocytoma with thoracic metastases during pregnancy that presented with symptoms of myelopathy and was treated with circumferential decompression, stabilization, and radiation. The management of this unique case is not well documented. The clinical manifestations, imaging results, pathological characteristics, treatment and prognosis of the case were analyzed.

Change in nonhigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in adults with prediabetes.

This study aimed to observe the change in nonhigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels and analyzed its related factors in adults with prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance).This case-controlled study included 56 adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 74 adults with prediabetes. The cases and controls were age and gender-matched. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure were performed. All patients underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after 8 hours of fasting, and the levels of glucose, insulin, lipids, and uric acid were measured.The levels of non-HDL-C (3.63 ± 0.92 vs 3.27 ± 1.00 mmol/L) were significantly higher in prediabetic subjects than in NGT subjects (P < .05). Non-HDL-C positively correlated with HOMA-IR (r = 0.253, P = .004), triglyceride (r = 0.204, P = .020), and uric acid (r = 0.487, P = .000). After multivariate analysis, uric acid continued to be significantly associated with non-HDL-C (β = 0.006, P = .000).Non-HDL-C is elevated in adults with prediabetes. A relationship between non-HDL-C and uric acid was observed.

Primary hypothyroidism and isolated ACTH deficiency induced by nivolumab therapy: Case report and review.

Nivolumab is a monoclonal IgG antibody blocking programmed death receptor-1 (PD1), leading to restoration of the natural T-cell-mediated immune response against the cancer cells. However, it also causes plenty of autoimmune-related adverse events, which often involves endocrine system.

Acute pancreatitis as an initial manifestation of parathyroid carcinoma: A case report and literature review.

Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare endocrine malignancy. Acute pancreatitis as an initial manifestation of parathyroid carcinoma has been rarely reported.

Pituitary insufficiency following traumatic thoracic injury in an adolescent male patient: A case report and literature review.

Traumatic thoracic injuries in adolescents are rare but could be connected with traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and development of chronic hypopituitarism. Early recognition of these endocrine problems is a significant challenge to clinicians. We present difficulties in diagnosis of hypothalamic-pituitary insufficiency following traumatic thoracic injury in adolescence. We also review the literature of similar cases.

ACE Inhibitors and Statins in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes.

Among adolescents with type 1 diabetes, rapid increases in albumin excretion during puberty precede the development of microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria, long-term risk factors for renal and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that adolescents with high levels of albumin excretion might benefit from angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and statins, drugs that have not been fully evaluated in adolescents.

Intergenerational diabetes and obesity-A cycle to break?

Ronald Ma and Barry Popkin discuss the urgent need and challenges to reduce intergenerational transmission of obesity and diabetes.

Assessment of Neurotrophins and Inflammatory Mediators in Vitreous of Patients With Diabetic Retinopathy.

To assess vitreous levels of inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophins (NTs) in diabetic retinopathy (DR) and elucidate their potential roles.

Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes for Diabetes Mellitus.

Diabetes mellitus is a common chronic disease affecting approximately 9% of the United States population. Successful management of diabetes demands constant self-management on the part of the patient. The patient has to balance diabetes medications, blood glucose monitoring, food intake, physical activity, and management of diabetes-related acute and chronic complications. The patient is often bombarded with misinformation from friends, relatives, and such sources as the Internet and social media. This article discusses the current recommendations for diabetes self-management education and skills including medical nutrition therapy, physical activity, smoking cessation, and assessment for diabetes distress.

Prediabetes: Beyond the Borderline.

Prediabetes is a complex multifactorial metabolic disorder that extends beyond glucose control. Current studies have found that microvascular disease (neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy), macrovascular disease (stroke, coronary artery disease, and peripheral vascular disease), periodontal disease, cognitive dysfunction, blood pressure changes, obstructive sleep apnea, low testosterone level, fatty liver disease, and cancer are some of conditions that are present with the onset of glycemic dysregulation. The presence of prediabetes increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes 3-fold to 10-fold. The identification and treatment of prediabetes are imperative to prevent or delay the progression to type 2 diabetes.

Review of 2017 Diabetes Standards of Care.

Diabetes is a complex medical condition that requires evidence-based care. This article discusses the current diabetes screening, diagnostic criteria, and treatment recommendations for patients with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes, and prediabetes.

Management of Lipids in Patients with Diabetes.

Abnormal lipids, sometimes referred to as diabetes dyslipidemia, is a common condition in patients with diabetes. With the increasing number of patients with abnormal lipids, especially those with type 2 diabetes, health care practitioners, including nurses, have to properly manage patients with diabetes as well as abnormal lipids. This article examines the pathophysiology of abnormal lipids, the management of abnormal lipids, and the lipid goals for patients with diabetes. Lastly, this article discusses pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies and the role of primary care providers and nurses in the management of abnormal lipids.

Management of Diabetes in Children and Adolescents.

Diabetes is a common chronic illness in children and adolescents. This article will discuss the prevalence, diagnostic criteria, types, treatment, and transition of care into adulthood.

Management Strategies for Patients with Diabetic Kidney Disease and Chronic Kidney Disease in Diabetes.

Diabetes mellitus is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease, prompting the need for monitoring and management of this complex condition in those diagnosed with diabetes. Management is often multifaceted and includes lifestyle modification, management of hyperglycemia, and management of hypertension and hyperlipidemia to slow progression of kidney disease and to mitigate cardiovascular risks associated with diabetes and kidney disease. This article reviews the current literature regarding monitoring and management of diabetic kidney disease and chronic kidney disease in diabetes.

Hypoglycemia in Diabetes.

Hypoglycemia is a common problem in patients with diabetes, and often limits those trying to achieve tight glucose control. Achieving optimal glucose control is necessary to prevent microvascular complications. Hypoglycemia can cause mild disturbances to daily life, but in severe cases can be fatal. Patient education of hypoglycemic medications, risk factors, contributing factors, and prevention strategies should be included in the care plan of patients at risk of developing hypoglycemia.

A Primer on Insulin Pump Therapy for Health Care Providers.

An estimated 1 million people use an insulin pump to manage their diabetes. Few medical professionals understand or feel comfortable caring for people who use an insulin pump. This article will help the medical professional understand the reasons why the insulin pump helps the user to achieve better glycemic control, have more flexibility, and enjoy a better quality of life. Additionally, this article discusses the advantages, disadvantages, candidate selection, contraindications, basic functions, and troubleshooting of the insulin pump.

Insulin Therapy: The Old, the New and the Novel-An Overview.

Since its development, insulin therapy has been a mainstay in the arsenal of every practitioner battling against diabetes. For patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, insulin is essential for survival, and for those with type 2 diabetes mellitus, as the disease progresses, it may become a necessary addition to treatment. The goal of this article is to discuss insulin therapies that are currently available for use in the management of diabetes, from the old to the new and novel, and briefly discuss insulin use in special populations.

Noninsulin Diabetes Medications.

Pharmacotherapy for diabetes has changed greatly owing to drugs and drug classes available. There are 11 classes of noninsulin diabetes medications available in the United States. With the use of 1 drug alone or in combination with different drugs, it is possible to improve glycemic control in patients with diabetes. Important properties of antidiabetic agents play a role in the choice of that particular medication for individual patients. Prescribing a diabetes medication regimen is based careful assessment of patient needs, and consideration of the medication's efficacy, impact on weight, hypoglycemia risk, potential side effects, cost, and patient preferences.

The How-To for Type 2: An Overview of Diagnosis and Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

This article presents an overview of type 2 diabetes diagnosis and management. A brief discussion of epidemiology, including incidence, prevalence, and etiology, provides the basis for the importance of the discussion. The review then proceeds to outline diagnostic criteria and follow-up monitoring guidelines. Recommendations for evidence-based lifestyle measures and current pharmacologic options are addressed. A priority on individualized, holistic care with patient-specified goals and the management of comorbidities is emphasized.

Management of Type 1 Diabetes.

Comprehensive type 1 diabetes management requires understanding of the pathophysiology of disease and the ability to contrast this process with type 2 diabetes. Nurses are often the first contact with patients and must be aware of the advancements in detection, therapies, and signs of complications in these patients. Individuals with type 1 diabetes are at high risk for glycemic complications caused by potentially preventable errors in medication administration, which can be mitigated with appropriate education.

Retinal Oximetry and Vessel Diameter Measurements With a Commercially Available Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope in Diabetic Retinopathy.

To test the hypothesis that retinal vascular diameter and hemoglobin oxygen saturation alterations, according to stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR), are discernible with a commercially available scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO).

Efficacy of predictive models for polycystic ovary syndrome using serum levels of two antimüllerian hormone isoforms (proAMH and AMHN,C).

To compare total antimüllerian hormone (AMH), proAMH, AMHN,C, and the ratio of the two forms in predictive models for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) diagnosis. Total AMH consists of proAMH (inactive precursor) and AMHN,C (receptor-competent), but neither isoform has been tested individually for their ability to predict PCOS diagnosis.

11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 in Obese Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Obesity is one of the most significant contributors to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Tissue-specific glucocorticoids regulated by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme (11β-HSD) type 1 are involved in central obesity and obesity-related comorbidities. Moderate downregulation of 11β-HSD1 can attenuate insulin insensitivity and the impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Some of the beneficial effects of 11β-HSD1 inhibition may be mediated, at least in part, through inactivation of tissue-specific glucocorticoid action related to insulin signaling mechanisms, alleviation of abnormal cytokine profile and the improvement of β-cell function. Thus, 11β-HSD1 is a promising target for the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus with obesity.

Association of Bone Metabolic Markers With Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema in Elderly Chinese Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common and specific microvascular complication of diabetes. The association of bone metabolic markers with the risk of DR and diabetic macular edema (DME) is unclear.

Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Heart Failure.

Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a well-known pathophysiologic feature of chronic renal failure. In recent years, SHPT has become recognized as a complication of the aldosteronism associated with congestive heart failure and where excretory Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) wasting results in plasma-ionized hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia. Elevations in plasma parathyroid hormone have adverse systemic consequences, including intracellular Ca(2+) overloading of myocytes and vascular smooth muscle with the induction of oxidative stress. Herein, we briefly review the presence and adverse outcomes of SHPT in persons with heart failure.

Regional Patterns of Retinal Oxygen Saturation and Microvascular Hemodynamic Parameters Preceding Retinopathy in Patients With Type II Diabetes.

Alterations in retinal oxygen metabolism and retinal microcirculation are signs of impending diabetic retinopathy (DR). However, if specific retinal regions are primarily affected is so far unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate if retinal oxygen saturation (SO2) and microvascular hemodynamic parameters follow a distinct regional pattern in patients with diabetes but no DR.

HDR syndrome with a novel mutation in GATA3 mimicking a congenital X-linked stapes gusher: a case report.

Hypoparathyroidism, sensorineural hearing loss, and renal disease (HDR) syndrome, also known as Barakat syndrome, is a rare genetic disorder with high phenotypic heterogeneity caused by haploinsufficiency of the GATA3 gene on chromosome 10p14-p15. For these reasons, the diagnosis of HDR syndrome is challenging and requires a high index of suspicion as well as genetic analysis.

Prevalence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) and factors associated: An epidemiological analysis from the population-based Screening PRE-diabetes and type 2 DIAbetes (SPREDIA-2) study.

To describe the prevalence of Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) in a random population sample and to evaluate its relationship with Mediterranean diet and with other potential cardiovascular risk factors such as serum uric acid and pulse pressure in individuals ranged 45 to 74 years.