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Digestive System Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Recurrence of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Stage A Hepatocellular Carcinoma After Hepatectomy.

The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system is widely used to classify hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study was performed to investigate the prognostic factors for patients with BCLC stage A HCC after R0 hepatectomy.

A Comparative Analysis of Serum IgG4 Levels in Patients With IgG4-Related Disease and Other Disorders.

Elevated serum IgG4 levels are an important hallmark for diagnosing IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) but can also be found and reported in other diseases. The present study intended to compare the serum IgG4 levels in both IgG4-RD and non-IgG4-RD and determine the serum IgG4 levels in patients with IgG4-RD before and after glucocorticoid therapy.

Metformin Has Positive Therapeutic Effects in Colon Cancer and Lung Cancer.

Metformin (MF), a diabetic drug, has antineoplastic activity as adjuvant therapy for breast cancer and prostate cancer. MF is thought to work via inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin and activation of p53 and liver kinase B1 via adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase. We investigated survival, recurrences and metastasis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) along with colorectal cancer (CC) or lung cancer (LC) taking MF using the electronic medical record in Memphis Veterans Affairs Medical Center (colon, n = 202; lung, n = 180).

Meeting of the International Task Force for Disease Eradication, June 2017.

Occupational Animal Exposure Among Persons with Campylobacteriosis and Cryptosporidiosis - Nebraska, 2005-2015.

Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium are two common causes of gastroenteritis in the United States. National incidence rates measured for these pathogens in 2015 were 17.7 and 3.0 per 100,000 population, respectively; Nebraska was among the states with the highest incidence for both campylobacteriosis (26.6) and cryptosporidiosis (≥6.01) (1). Although campylobacteriosis and cryptosporidiosis are primarily transmitted via consumption of contaminated food or water, they can also be acquired through contact with live animals or animal products, including through occupational exposure (2). This exposure route is of particular interest in Nebraska, where animal agriculture and associated industries are an important part of the state's economy. To estimate the percentage of disease that might be related to occupational animal exposure in Nebraska, the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services (NDHHS) and CDC reviewed deidentified investigation reports from 2005 to 2015 of cases of campylobacteriosis and cryptosporidiosis among Nebraska residents aged ≥14 years. Case investigation notes were searched for evidence of occupational animal exposures, which were classified into discrete categories based on industry, animal/meat, and specific work activity/exposure. Occupational animal exposure was identified in 16.6% of 3,352 campylobacteriosis and 8.7% of 1,070 cryptosporidiosis cases, among which animal production (e.g., farming or ranching) was the most commonly mentioned industry type (68.2% and 78.5%, respectively), followed by employment in animal slaughter and processing facilities (16.3% and 5.4%, respectively). Among animal/meat occupational exposures, cattle/beef was most commonly mentioned, with exposure to feedlots (concentrated animal feeding operations in which animals are fed on stored feeds) reported in 29.9% of campylobacteriosis and 7.9% of cryptosporidiosis cases. Close contact with animals and manure in feedlots and other farm settings might place workers in these areas at increased risk for infection. It is important to educate workers with occupational animal exposure about the symptoms of enteric diseases and prevention measures. Targeting prevention strategies to high-risk workplaces and activities could help reduce disease.

Updated Dosing Instructions for Immune Globulin (Human) GamaSTAN S/D for Hepatitis A Virus Prophylaxis.

GamaSTAN S/D (Grifols Therapeutics, Inc., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina) is a sterile, preservative-free solution of immune globulin (IG) for intramuscular administration and is used for prophylaxis against disease caused by infection with hepatitis A, measles, varicella, and rubella viruses (1). GamaSTAN S/D is the only IG product approved by the Food and Drug Administration for hepatitis A virus (HAV) prophylaxis. In July 2017, GamaSTAN S/D prescribing information was updated with changes to the dosing instructions for hepatitis A preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis indications. These changes were made because of concerns about decreased HAV immunoglobulin G antibody (anti-HAV IgG) potency, likely resulting from decreasing prevalence of previous HAV infection among plasma donors, leading to declining anti-HAV antibody levels in donor plasma (2). No changes in dosing instructions were made for measles, varicella, or rubella preexposure or postexposure prophylaxis.

Laparoscopic Nissen (total) versus anterior 180° fundoplication for gastro-esophageal reflux disease: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) has been the gold standard for the surgical management of Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Laparoscopic anterior 180° fundoplication (180° LAF) is reported to reduce the incidence of postoperative complications while obtaining similar control of reflux. The present meta-analysis was conducted to confirm the value of the 2 techniques.

Augmented reality navigation in open surgery for hilar cholangiocarcinoma resection with hemihepatectomy using video-based in situ three-dimensional anatomical modeling: A case report.

Patients who undergo hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCAC) resection with concomitant hepatectomy have a high risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality due to surgical trauma to the hepatic and biliary vasculature.

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis presenting as upper gastrointestinal hematoma and ulcers after endoscopic biopsy: A case report and literature review.

Eosinphilic gastroenteritis (EG) is a gastrointestinal disorder characterized by eosinophilic infiltration with various manifestations. The diagnosis is usually confirmed by an endoscopic biopsy, which is considered a safe and routine procedure for the majority.

Transabdominal ultrasonography of the pancreas is superior to that of the liver for detection of ectopic fat deposits resulting from metabolic syndrome.

The aim of our study was to investigate the rate of nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease (NAFPD) in the south China province of Fujian and its relationship to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic parameters.NAFPD is frequently identified on transabdominal ultrasound examination. The incidence of NAFPD varies from 16% to 69.7% depending on the country.A total of 256 subjects were recruited. Each was assessed by abdominal sonography to diagnose NAFLD and NAFPD. The ages, sexes, heights, weights, blood pressure, and detection of peripheral blood biochemical indices (cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL], and glucose) were recorded. The relationships among metabolic parameters and NAFPD or NAFLD were evaluated, and the positive rates of NAFLD and NAFPD in the general population were compared.The age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI), cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and glucose were significantly associated with NAFPD and NAFLD but the positive rate of NAFPD was significantly higher than that of NAFLD. The BMI, age, and NAFLD were the independent risk factors of NAFPD. The sex distribution, weight, SBP, DBP, BMI, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, glucose, cholesterol, NAFPD, and NAFLD were different significantly between metabolic syndrome and normal subjects.NAFPD and NAFLD can reflect the body metabolism, but NAFPD has a higher detection rate.

Characteristics of infection and its impact on short-term outcome in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure.

Bacterial infections are an important cause of mortality in liver failure. However, the type of infection, predictors of infection, and their impact on outcomes in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) are limited.A total of 389 patients with ACLF were admitted in this retrospective, corhort study. Once admitted, clinical data including first infection site, type (community-acquired, healthcare-associated, or nosocomial), and second infection occurrence during hospitalization were collected. The outcome was mortality within 90 days. Multivariable logistic regression models were preformed to predict second infection development and 90-day mortality. Survival probability curves were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method.Among 389 patients, 316 (81.2%) patients had infection. The 90-day mortality of patients with and without infection was 52.2% and 16.4%, respectively (P <.001). The most common first infection was healthcare associated (51.3%), followed by nosocomial (30.1%) and community-acquired infections (18.7%). Respiratory tract infection, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and urinary tract infection were most prevalent. Gram-positive organism was more frequently seen than gram-negative organisms. Of note, fungi accounted for 15.9% of the total infection cases. During hospitalization, 26.6% patients developed second infections. The 90-day mortality of patients developed or did not develop a second infection were 67.9% and 46.6%, respectively (P <.001). Independent predictors of 90-day mortality in infected patients with ACLF were age, white blood cell (WBC) count, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, hepatic encephalopathy (HE), and second infection.Infections (regardless of first or second infection) can increase the 90-day mortality significantly in patients with ACLF. And age, WBC count, MELD score, HE, and the presence of second infection are independent risk factors affecting 90-day mortality in patients with ACLF showing infection.

Abdominal fat distribution measured using computed tomography is associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenoma in men.

A few studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the association between the visceral fat proportion and colorectal adenomas. We aimed to investigate the association between abdominal fat distribution measured by computed tomography (CT) and colon adenoma.A total of 336 participants underwent physical examination, blood tests, colonoscopy, and abdominal computed tomography at Chung-Ang University Hospital. The associations between the obesity indicies (body mass index, visceral fat area (VFA), subcutaneous fat area (SFA), VFA-to-SFA ratio (VFA/SFA), and colorectal adenomas were evaluated.Of 309 subjects, 119 patients (38.5%) had colorectal adenoma. Mean age and fasting plasma glucose were higher in the patients with colorectal adenoma (P < .05, respectively). The mean VFA (153.3 cm vs 131.4 cm, P < .01) and VFA/SFA (1.07 vs 0.92, P < .05) were higher in the adenoma group than in the nonadenoma group. Males had higher mean VFA and VFA/SFA (P < .001). The mean VFA, SFA, and VFA/SFA were not associated with the location, size, number, and advancement of colorectal adenoma. In multivariate analysis, colorectal adenoma was significantly associated with VFA rather than VFA/SFA. In addition, colorectal adenoma was significantly associated with VFA rather than VFA/SFA in the men. The VFA, SFA, and VFA/SFA were not associated with colorectal adenoma in the women.The VFA measured by using a CT scan was positively associated with the presence of colorectal adenoma, especially in men. Furthermore, average risk men with large visceral fat volume should be examined carefully in screening colonoscopy.

Clinical and microbiological characteristics of pyogenic liver abscess in a tertiary hospital in East China.

Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is a potentially life-threatening disease affecting many parts of the world, especially Asia. In this study, we explored the clinical and microbiological characteristics of PLA in Chinese patients.A 5-year (2010-2014) retrospective review of medical records on all PLA patients who were admitted to a tertiary teaching hospital was performed.Among 217 PLA cases who were confirmed cultural positive, Klebsiella pneumonia (K pneumonia) was the most common pathogen (n = 165, 76.0%), followed by Escherichia coli (n = 21, 9.7%). Notably, there is a higher incidence of diabetes mellitus in patients with K pneumoniae-induced PLA (KP-PLA) than that with non-K pneumoniae-induced PLA (non-KP-PLA)(43.0% vs 21.2%, P = .005). However, it was less prevalent for concomitant hepatobiliary disease (20.0% vs 34.6%, P = .039) and history of intraabdominal trauma or surgery (13.3% vs 38.5%, P < .001) in patients with KP-PLA. Although K pneumoniae are sensitive to most common antibiotics (antibiotic resistance rates below 10%), some strains (1.2%) developed resistant to carbapenem. These results confirmed K pneumoniae as the predominant pathogen of PLA in the area in which the study was conducted. More attention should be directed toward monitoring the emergence of carbapenem-resistant K pneumoniae.KP-PLA is frequently diagnosed in patients with metabolic diseases accompanied by serious consequences, and it is therefore prudent to see that they receive sensitivity-directed antibiotic therapy.

Prognostic impact of surgical margin in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: A meta-analysis.

Surgical margin is an important prognostic factor in hepatectomy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). But the extent of surgical margins is still controversial. Our study was designed to systematically evaluate the prognosis of different width of resection margin.

Risk factor analysis for nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia following cardiac surgery: A case-control study.

Although rare, postcardiac surgery nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI) is a life-threatening condition. Identifying the risk factors for NOMI during immediate postoperative period may help early detection and intervention, which leads to improved clinical outcomes. The objective of this study was to identify the clinical features and risk factors of NOMI for prognosis identification after cardiac surgery, focusing on immediate postoperative parameters.Among 9445 patients who underwent cardiac surgery over a span of 9 years, 40 NOMI cases (0.4%) requiring surgical interventions were reviewed. Suspected NOMI was diagnosed by sigmoidoscopy or computed tomography. To identify the risk factors, a control group (case: control = 1:3 ratio) was randomly selected and compared using logistic regression models.NOMI was diagnosed after a mean of 8.1 ± 9.6 days following cardiac surgery. Age (odds ratio: 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.25, P < .001), total vasoactive-inotropic score (VIS), and the maximal lactate level at postoperative day 0 (1.003, [1.001-1.005], P = .012), (1.23, [1.04-1.44], P = .011) were shown as risk factors. NOMI cases showed persistent hyperlactatemia without washout during the first 48 hours (P = .04). Thirty-four cases underwent exploratory laparotomy within a median of 10 (2-356) hours after the diagnosis, but only 17 patients (42.5%) survived. Compared with survivors, nonsurvivors showed higher total VIS at diagnosis, higher lactate levels during the first 24 hours postoperatively, and more frequently required extensive bowel resection (P < .05).Old age, postoperative high-dose vasoactive-inotropic use, and persistent high lactate level during the first 24 hours postsurgery were identified as risk factors for NOMI. Lactic acidosis and necrotic-bowel extent at surgical exploration were associated with poor survival.

Risk factors for lymph node metastasis of early gastric cancers in patients younger than 40.

This research aims to explore the potential risk factors of lymph node metastasis (LNM) for early gastric cancers in young patients.We retrospectively collected data from 4287 patients who underwent gastrectomy from January 2005 to December 2015 at Linyi People's Hospital. Of these, we enrolled 397 eligible consecutive patients who had early gastric cancer, then divided them into 2 groups according to age (≤40 years and >40 years). The association between the clinicopathological factors and LNM was analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis.Compared to older patients (>40 years), younger patients (≤40 years) with early gastric cancer had more diffuse and mixed types (51.1% and 37.8% vs 40% and 8.3%, respectively), less proximal gastric cancer (0% vs 33.8%, P < .01) and higher LNM (33.3% vs 13%, P < .01). Univariate analysis showed tumor invasion depth (P < .01), lymphovascular invasion (P < .01), and E-cadherin expression (P = .024) were associated with LNM in the younger cohort. Multivariate analysis revealed that lymphovascular invasion (OR = 17.740, 95% CI: 1.458-215.843) was an independent risk factor for LNM (P = .024). Further analysis showed 3 patients who were within expanded endoscopic resection indications were positive for LNM.Given the high risk of lymph node involvement in young patients with early gastric cancer, both endoscopic and surgical resection procedures should be performed with caution, and active postoperative surveillance is warranted.

Plastic wound protectors decreased surgical site infections following laparoscopic-assisted colectomy for colorectal cancer: A retrospective cohort study.

Laparoscopic surgery is widespread and safe for the management of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Although the use of standard surgical techniques can prevent perioperative wound infections, surgical site infections (SSIs) remain an unresolved complication in laparoscopic-assisted colectomy. The present study investigated the ability of plastic wound protectors applied to the extraction incision during the externalized portion of the procedure to reduce the rate of infection in laparoscopic-assisted colectomy. We completed a retrospective review of the medical records of patients who underwent nonemergent laparoscopic-assisted between January 2015 and June 2016. Outcomes for patients with and without the use of a wound protector were compared. A total of 109 patients were included in this study. There was 1 patient in the wound protector group (n = 57) and 7 in the nonwound protector group (n = 52) who developed a wound infection at the colon extraction site (P = .02). Furthermore, the average postoperative hospital stay in the wound protector group was shorter compared to the nonwound protector group (7.47 ± 0.24 vs 8.73 ± 0.54 days, P = .03). In conclusion, this study indicates that the use of a plastic wound protector during laparoscope-assisted colectomy does reduce postoperative wound infection rates, and the wound protectors are beneficial for specimen extraction and digestive tract reconstruction.

ERCP-related complication is not the only cause of GI bleeding in post-liver transplantation patients: A case report.

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the treatment of choice for biliary complications in liver transplantation (LT) recipients as it is both diagnostic and therapeutic. The specific risks following ERCP among LT recipients have not been well studied.

Combination of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and interrupted dosing sorafenib improves patient survival in early-intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma: A post hoc analysis of the START trial.

The survival benefit of treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with sorafenib remains uncertain. We compared the survival of patients treated with TACE and sorafenib with that of patients treated with TACE alone.

Intestinal obstruction due to kaposiform hemangioendothelioma in a 1-month-old infant: A case report.

Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) is an aggressive vascular tumor, mainly occurring in infants and young children and previously reported cases were mainly cutaneous or visceral form. Intestinal kaposiform hemangioma was first reported in 2012. Intestinal type KHE showed better prognosis if the lesion was limited in the gastrointestinal tract and coagulopathy was not accompanied. Since the number of reported cases is small, further study for treatment options and prognosis need to be done.

Colonic gallstone ileus: a rare cause of colonic obstruction.

Bile ileus with migration of the gallstone into the colon through cholecystocolonic fistula is rare. The diagnosis is difficult and often late. We here report the case of a 89-year old patient with a history of sigmoid diverticular disease presenting with colonic obstruction associated with bile ileus caused by migration of a large gallstone through cholecystocolonic fistula. Abdominal CT scan allowed the diagnosis. The patient underwent surgical extraction of the gallstone with sigmoidotomy followed by sigmoidostomy with subsequent recovery of the digestive continuity. The cholecystocolonic fistula wasn't identified.

Laparoscopic evaluation and management of isolated gastric rupture in a boy after blunt abdominal injury.

Blunt abdominal injury in children can be a significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The extent and localization of organ damage cannot be always thoroughly investigated noninvasively and in spite of modern imaging techniques and a laparotomy may be necessary for diagnosis, even though it carries a significant morbidity. We present a rare case of isolated gastric rupture after blunt abdominal injury in a 12 year old boy that sustained a bicycle accident. He was hemodynamically stable, had signs of acute abdomen and axial tomography was inconclusive as of the site of visceral perforation. Definitive diagnosis and treatment were carried out laparoscopically with excellent results. Laparoscopic surgery in cases of blunt abdominal injury with gastric rupture can serve both as a diagnostic and therapeutic modality with the additional advantage of being less traumatic. The accumulation of relevant experience is mandatory in order to establish this modality in the diagnostic and therapeutic protocols.

Idiopathic gastric perforation in neonates: about a case.

Spontaneous neonatal gastric perforation is rare. We report the case of a newborn without any abnormality identified at delivery and whose mother had problem-free pregnancy. On the third day of life, he had a sudden onset of severe abdominal distension followed by bilious vomiting. Abdominal X-rays without treatment showed massive pneumoperitoneum and laparotomy showed a perforation at the level of the anterior gastric wall closed in a single layer closure. Postoperative course was uneventful. Spontaneous neonatal gastric perforation usually has a favorable outcome. Hence the importance of early diagnosis and patient management.

Occlusion secondary to congenital internal transmesenteric hernia: about 2 cases.

Internal hernia due to mesenteric defect or transmesenteric hernia is a rare cause of acute intestinal obstruction. Its diagnosis is most often done during surgery. The knowledge of its clinical peculiarities allows the preoperative diagnosis. We here report 2 cases of acute intestinal obstruction secondary to congenital transmesenteric hernia in two adult patients. This study aims to highlight the clinical peculiarities of this rare form of internal hernia.

Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the colon: about a case.

Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the colon is an exceptional tumor. Less than 150 cases have been reported in the literature up to the year 2014. In addition to its rarity, it is distinguished by its frequent association with other digestive neoplasias. We report the case of a 54-year old patient with primary SCC of the colon. In the light of this case study, we will discuss the anatomo-clinical and therapeutic features as well as the etiopathogenic assumptions of this unusual entity.

Brief Report: High Need to Switch cART or Comedication With the Initiation of DAAs in Elderly HIV/HCV-Coinfected Patients.

To describe the use of nonantiretroviral comedication and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in patients coinfected with HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) and to predict the potential for drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) against HCV.

Transplanting HCV-Infected Kidneys into Uninfected Recipients.

Transplanting HCV-Infected Kidneys into Uninfected Recipients.

Transplanting HCV-Infected Kidneys into Uninfected Recipients.

A Dual Role of Caspase-8 in Triggering and Sensing Proliferation-Associated DNA Damage, a Key Determinant of Liver Cancer Development.

Concomitant hepatocyte apoptosis and regeneration is a hallmark of chronic liver diseases (CLDs) predisposing to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we mechanistically link caspase-8-dependent apoptosis to HCC development via proliferation- and replication-associated DNA damage. Proliferation-associated replication stress, DNA damage, and genetic instability are detectable in CLDs before any neoplastic changes occur. Accumulated levels of hepatocyte apoptosis determine and predict subsequent hepatocarcinogenesis. Proliferation-associated DNA damage is sensed by a complex comprising caspase-8, FADD, c-FLIP, and a kinase-dependent function of RIPK1. This platform requires a non-apoptotic function of caspase-8, but no caspase-3 or caspase-8 cleavage. It may represent a DNA damage-sensing mechanism in hepatocytes that can act via JNK and subsequent phosphorylation of the histone variant H2AX.