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Cardiovascular Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Patient selection for high sensitivity cardiac troponin testing and diagnosis of myocardial infarction: prospective cohort study.

Objective To evaluate how selection of patients for high sensitivity cardiac troponin testing affects the diagnosis of myocardial infarction across different healthcare settings.Design Prospective study of three independent consecutive patient populations presenting to emergency departments.Setting Secondary and tertiary care hospitals in the United Kingdom and United States.Participants High sensitivity cardiac troponin I concentrations were measured in 8500 consecutive patients presenting to emergency departments: unselected patients in the UK (n=1054) and two selected populations of patients in whom troponin testing was requested by the attending clinician in the UK (n=5815) and the US (n=1631). The final diagnosis of type 1 or type 2 myocardial infarction or myocardial injury was independently adjudicated.Main outcome measures Positive predictive value of an elevated cardiac troponin concentration for a diagnosis of type 1 myocardial infarction.Results Cardiac troponin concentrations were elevated in 13.7% (144/1054) of unselected patients, with a prevalence of 1.6% (17/1054) for type 1 myocardial infarction and a positive predictive value of 11.8% (95% confidence interval 7.0% to 18.2%). In selected patients, in whom troponin testing was guided by the attending clinician, the prevalence and positive predictive value were 14.5% (843/5815) and 59.7% (57.0% to 62.2%) in the UK and 4.2% (68/1631) and 16.4% (13.0% to 20.3%) in the US. Across both selected patient populations, the positive predictive value was highest in patients with chest pain, with ischaemia on the electrocardiogram, and with a history of ischaemic heart disease.Conclusions When high sensitivity cardiac troponin testing is performed widely or without previous clinical assessment, elevated troponin concentrations are common and predominantly reflect myocardial injury rather than myocardial infarction. These observations highlight how selection of patients for cardiac troponin testing varies across healthcare settings and markedly influences the positive predictive value for a diagnosis of myocardial infarction.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) event rates in HIV-positive persons at high predicted CVD and CKD risk: A prospective analysis of the D:A:D observational study.

The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study has developed predictive risk scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD, defined as confirmed estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≤ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) events in HIV-positive people. We hypothesized that participants in D:A:D at high (>5%) predicted risk for both CVD and CKD would be at even greater risk for CVD and CKD events.

Impact of Injectable Furosemide Hospital Shortage on Congestive Heart Failure Outcomes: A Time Series Analysis.

Beginning in February 2012, there was a shortage of injectable furosemide in the province of Ontario, Canada. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of the furosemide shortage on heart failure outcomes in Ontario, Canada.

Mind the Gap: Current Challenges and Future State of Heart Failure Care.

The past decade has seen many advances in the management of heart failure (HF) that have improved survival and quality of life for patients living with this condition. A number of gaps remain in our understanding of the pathophysiology of HF, and the application of emerging treatment strategies is an exciting but daunting challenge. It is possible that advances in genetic evaluation of cardiomyopathy will provide a more refined approach to characterizing HF syndromes, whereas large-scale clinical trials on the horizon should further clarify the role of novel pharmacologic agents and invasive therapies. Cardiac repair and regeneration hold great promise, but a number of pragmatic issues will limit clinical application in the near term. Replacing cardiac function with ventricular assist devices represents significant progress in the management of advanced disease; however, unacceptable rates of complications and costs need to be addressed before broader use in the general HF population is feasible. The ability to personalize care is limited, and the optimal model of disease management in the Canadian context remains uncertain. The emergence of biomarker-guided management and remote monitoring technologies might facilitate a more personalized approach to care in an effort to maintain health and stability and to prevent worsening HF. Ultimately, a greater understanding of how and when to intervene in the setting of acute HF should translate into improved outcomes for the highest-risk subgroup of patients. This review highlights key challenges in the management of HF and highlights the progress toward an ideal future state.

2017 Comprehensive Update of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society Guidelines for the Management of Heart Failure.

Since the inception of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society heart failure (HF) guidelines in 2006, much has changed in the care for patients with HF. Over the past decade, the HF Guidelines Committee has published regular updates. However, because of the major changes that have occurred, the Guidelines Committee believes that a comprehensive reassessment of the HF management recommendations is presently needed, with a view to producing a full and complete set of updated guidelines. The primary and secondary Canadian Cardiovascular Society HF panel members as well as external experts have reviewed clinically relevant literature to provide guidance for the practicing clinician. The 2017 HF guidelines provide updated guidance on the diagnosis and management (self-care, pharmacologic, nonpharmacologic, device, and referral) that should aid in day-to-day decisions for caring for patients with HF. Among specific issues covered are risk scores, the differences in management for HF with preserved vs reduced ejection fraction, exercise and rehabilitation, implantable devices, revascularization, right ventricular dysfunction, anemia, and iron deficiency, cardiorenal syndrome, sleep apnea, cardiomyopathies, HF in pregnancy, cardio-oncology, and myocarditis. We devoted attention to strategies and treatments to prevent HF, to the organization of HF care, comorbidity management, as well as practical issues around the timing of referral and follow-up care. Recognition and treatment of advanced HF is another important aspect of this update, including how to select advanced therapies as well as end of life considerations. Finally, we acknowledge the remaining gaps in evidence that need to be filled by future research.

Inflammation-regulated mRNA stability and the progression of vascular inflammatory diseases.

Cardiovascular disease remains a major medical and socioeconomic burden in developed and developing societies, and will increase with an aging and increasingly sedentary society. Vascular disease and atherosclerotic vascular syndromes are essentially inflammatory disorders, and transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes play essential roles in the ability of resident vascular and inflammatory cells to adapt to environmental stimuli. The regulation of mRNA translocation, stability, and translation are key processes of post-transcriptional regulation that permit these cells to rapidly respond to inflammatory stimuli. For the most part, these processes are controlled by elements in the 3'-UTR of labile, proinflammatory transcripts. Since proinflammatory transcripts almost exclusively contain AU-rich elements (AREs), this represents a tightly regulated and specific mechanism for initiation and maintenance of the proinflammatory phenotype. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) recognize cis elements in 3'-UTR, and regulate each of these processes, but there is little literature exploring the concept that RBPs themselves can be directly regulated by inflammatory stimuli. Conceptually, inflammation-responsive RBPs represent an attractive target of rational therapies to combat vascular inflammatory syndromes. Herein we briefly describe the cellular and molecular etiology of atherosclerosis, and summarize our current understanding of RBPs and their specific roles in regulation of inflammatory mRNA stability. We also detail RBPs as targets of current anti-inflammatory modalities and how this may translate into better treatment for vascular inflammatory diseases.

Personalized medicine-a modern approach for the diagnosis and management of hypertension.

The main goal of treating hypertension is to reduce blood pressure to physiological levels and thereby prevent risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension-associated target organ damage. Despite reductions in major risk factors and the availability of a plethora of effective antihypertensive drugs, the control of blood pressure to target values is still poor due to multiple factors including apparent drug resistance and lack of adherence. An explanation for this problem is related to the current reductionist and 'trial-and-error' approach in the management of hypertension, as we may oversimplify the complex nature of the disease and not pay enough attention to the heterogeneity of the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of the disorder. Taking into account specific risk factors, genetic phenotype, pharmacokinetic characteristics, and other particular features unique to each patient, would allow a personalized approach to managing the disease. Personalized medicine therefore represents the tailoring of medical approach and treatment to the individual characteristics of each patient and is expected to become the paradigm of future healthcare. The advancement of systems biology research and the rapid development of high-throughput technologies, as well as the characterization of different -omics, have contributed to a shift in modern biological and medical research from traditional hypothesis-driven designs toward data-driven studies and have facilitated the evolution of personalized or precision medicine for chronic diseases such as hypertension.

Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Disease: Lessons From Recent Trials and Need for Team Science.

Emerging research highlights the complex interrelationships between sleep-disordered breathing and cardiovascular disease, presenting clinical and research opportunities as well as challenges. Patients presenting to cardiology clinics have a high prevalence of obstructive and central sleep apnea associated with Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Multiple mechanisms have been identified by which sleep disturbances adversely affect cardiovascular structure and function. Epidemiological research indicates that obstructive sleep apnea is associated with increases in the incidence and progression of coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke, and atrial fibrillation. Central sleep apnea associated with Cheyne-Stokes respiration predicts incident heart failure and atrial fibrillation; among patients with heart failure, it strongly predicts mortality. Thus, a strong literature provides the mechanistic and empirical bases for considering obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea associated with Cheyne-Stokes respiration as potentially modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Data from small trials provide evidence that treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with continuous positive airway pressure improves not only patient-reported outcomes such as sleepiness, quality of life, and mood but also intermediate cardiovascular end points such as blood pressure, cardiac ejection fraction, vascular parameters, and arrhythmias. However, data from large-scale randomized controlled trials do not currently support a role for positive pressure therapies for reducing cardiovascular mortality. The results of 2 recent large randomized controlled trials, published in 2015 and 2016, raise questions about the effectiveness of pressure therapies in reducing clinical end points, although 1 trial supported the beneficial effect of continuous positive airway pressure on quality of life, mood, and work absenteeism. This review provides a contextual framework for interpreting the results of recent studies, key clinical messages, and suggestions for future sleep and cardiovascular research, which include further consideration of individual risk factors, use of existing and new multimodality therapies that also address adherence, and implementation of trials that are sufficiently powered to target end points and to support subgroup analyses. These goals may best be addressed through strengthening collaboration among the cardiology, sleep medicine, and clinical trial communities.

Atrioesophageal Fistula: Clinical Presentation, Procedural Characteristics, Diagnostic Investigations, and Treatment Outcomes.

Percutaneous or surgical ablation are increasingly used worldwide in the management of atrial fibrillation. The development of atrioesophageal fistula (AEF) is among the most serious and lethal complications of atrial fibrillation ablation. We sought to characterize the clinical presentation, procedural characteristics, diagnostic investigations, and treatment outcomes of all reported cases of AEF.

De Novo Mutations in SLC25A24 Cause a Craniosynostosis Syndrome with Hypertrichosis, Progeroid Appearance, and Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

Gorlin-Chaudhry-Moss syndrome (GCMS) is a dysmorphic syndrome characterized by coronal craniosynostosis and severe midface hypoplasia, body and facial hypertrichosis, microphthalmia, short stature, and short distal phalanges. Variable lipoatrophy and cutis laxa are the basis for a progeroid appearance. Using exome and genome sequencing, we identified the recurrent de novo mutations c.650G>A (p.Arg217His) and c.649C>T (p.Arg217Cys) in SLC25A24 in five unrelated girls diagnosed with GCMS. Two of the girls had pronounced neonatal progeroid features and were initially diagnosed with Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome. SLC25A24 encodes a mitochondrial inner membrane ATP-Mg/Pi carrier. In fibroblasts from affected individuals, the mutated SLC25A24 showed normal stability. In contrast to control cells, the probands' cells showed mitochondrial swelling, which was exacerbated upon treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The same effect was observed after overexpression of the mutant cDNA. Under normal culture conditions, the mitochondrial membrane potential of the probands' fibroblasts was intact, whereas ATP content in the mitochondrial matrix was lower than that in control cells. However, upon H2O2 exposure, the membrane potential was significantly elevated in cells harboring the mutated SLC25A24. No reduction of mitochondrial DNA copy number was observed. These findings demonstrate that mitochondrial dysfunction with increased sensitivity to oxidative stress is due to the SLC25A24 mutations. Our results suggest that the SLC25A24 mutations induce a gain of pathological function and link mitochondrial ATP-Mg/Pi transport to the development of skeletal and connective tissue.

Localized Optogenetic Targeting of Rotors in Atrial Cardiomyocyte Monolayers.

Recently, a new ablation strategy for atrial fibrillation has emerged, which involves the identification of rotors (ie, local drivers) followed by the localized targeting of their core region by ablation. However, this concept has been subject to debate because the mode of arrhythmia termination remains poorly understood, as dedicated models and research tools are lacking. We took a unique optogenetic approach to induce and locally target a rotor in atrial monolayers.

A Test in Context: D-Dimer.

D-dimer is a soluble fibrin degradation product that results from ordered breakdown of thrombi by the fibrinolytic system. Numerous studies have shown that D-dimer serves as a valuable marker of activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis. Consequently, D-dimer has been extensively investigated for the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and is used routinely for this indication. In addition, D-dimer has been evaluated for determining the optimal duration of anticoagulation in VTE patients, for diagnosing and monitoring disseminated intravascular coagulation, and as an aid in the identification of medical patients at high risk for VTE. Thus, quantification of D-dimer levels serves an important role in guiding therapy. This review: 1) describes how D-dimer is generated; 2) reviews the assays used for its detection; and 3) discusses the role of D-dimer determination in these various conditions.

The Role of Nitroglycerin and Other Nitrogen Oxides in Cardiovascular Therapeutics.

The use of nitroglycerin in the treatment of angina pectoris began not long after its original synthesis in 1847. Since then, the discovery of nitric oxide as a biological effector and better understanding of its roles in vasodilation, cell permeability, platelet function, inflammation, and other vascular processes have advanced our knowledge of the hemodynamic (mostly mediated through vasodilation of capacitance and conductance arteries) and nonhemodynamic effects of organic nitrate therapy, via both nitric oxide-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Nitrates are rapidly absorbed from mucous membranes, the gastrointestinal tract, and the skin; thus, nitroglycerin is available in a number of preparations for delivery via several routes: oral tablets, sublingual tablets, buccal tablets, sublingual spray, transdermal ointment, and transdermal patch, as well as intravenous formulations. Organic nitrates are commonly used in the treatment of cardiovascular disease, but clinical data limit their use mostly to the treatment of angina. They are also used in the treatment of subsets of patients with heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. One major limitation of the use of nitrates is the development of tolerance. Although several agents have been studied for use in the prevention of nitrate tolerance, none are currently recommended owing to a paucity of supportive clinical data. Only 1 method of preventing nitrate tolerance remains widely accepted: the use of a dosing strategy that provides an interval of no or low nitrate exposure during each 24-h period. Nitric oxide's important role in several cardiovascular disease mechanisms continues to drive research toward finding novel ways to affect both endogenous and exogenous sources of this key molecular mediator.

Prognostic Value of Serial ST2 Measurements in Patients With Acute Heart Failure.

Several clinical studies have evaluated the association between ST2 and outcome in patients with heart failure (HF). However, little is known about the predictive value of frequently measured ST2 levels in patients with acute HF.

Eosinophilic Myocarditis: Characteristics, Treatment, and Outcomes.

Eosinophilic myocarditis (EM) is an acute life-threatening inflammatory disease of the heart. Neither large case series nor clinical trials on this specific myocarditis have been reported.

Sex-Related Differences in Vasomotor Function in Patients With Angina and Unobstructed Coronary Arteries.

Coronary vasomotor dysfunction is an important mechanism for angina in patients with unobstructed coronary arteries.

Mechanisms of Very Late Bioresorbable Scaffold Thrombosis: The INVEST Registry.

Very late scaffold thrombosis (VLScT) occurs more frequently after bioresorbable scaffold (Absorb BVS 1.1, Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, California) implantation than with metallic everolimus-eluting stents.

Transient sick sinus syndrome with complete atrioventricular block associated with ergonovine intake: A case report.

More mature or older women are more likely to undergo in vitro fertilization and embryo implant. These women have a greater chance of receiving ergonovine therapy because of a suspected abortion. We present this case report to call attention to a latent lethal adverse effect in everyday obstetric practice using ergonovine. It requires more attention and close monitoring PATIENT CONCERNS:: We presented the case of a 38-year-old female patient with general weakness and mild chest tightness after ergonovine use.

Rare esophageal ulcers related to Behçet disease: A case report.

The fundamental pathogenesis of Behçet disease (BD) is still unclear and controversial. Many cases of oral aphthous ulcers and genital ulcers related to BD are reported; nevertheless, idiopathic giant esophageal ulcers related to BD are rare. A rare case for esophageal ulcers related to BD is presented.

Relevance of urinary S100B protein levels as a short-term prognostic biomarker in asphyxiated infants treated with hypothermia.

The initial diagnosis of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is based on nervous system clinical manifestations. The use of biomarkers to monitor brain injury and evaluate neuroprotective effects allows early intervention and treatment. This study was designed to determine the short-term prognostic significance of urinary S100B calcium-binding protein (S100B) in asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia.An observational prospective study was conducted over a period of 5 years in 31 newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy who received therapeutic hypothermia. The patients were divided into 2 groups: Group A (13 newborns with a normal neurological examination before discharge) and Group B (18 newborns who died during admission or had an abnormal neurologic examination before discharge). Urinary S100B was the main variable, serum S100B and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) were considered as secondary variables, and all of them were assessed on the first 3 days of life. The newborns were subsequently divided into groups with normal and abnormal electrophysiological and imaging findings.Mean urinary S100B levels were significantly higher in group B than group A on day 1 (10.58 ± 14.82 vs 4.65 ± 9.16 μg/L, P = .031) and day 2 (5.16 ± 7.63 vs 0.88 ± 2.53, P = .002). The optimal cutoff for urinary S100B on day 1 was >1.11 μg/L of (sensitivity, 100%; specificity 60%) for the prediction of neonatal death and < 0.66 μg/L (sensitivity 83% and specificity 70%) for the prediction of a normal neurological examination before discharge. It was not possible to calculate cutoffs with a similar accuracy for serum S100B or NSE. Urinary S100B on day 1 was higher in patients with abnormal magnetic resonance imaging findings (7.89 ± 8.09 vs 4.49 ± 9.14, P = .039) and abnormal positron emission tomography findings (8.60 ± 9.29 vs 4.30 ± 8.28, P = .038). There were no significant differences in S100B levels between patients with normal and abnormal electroencephalography results.Urinary S100B measured in the first days of life can predict neonatal death and short-term prognosis in asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia. The method is convenient, noninvasive, and has a higher sensitivity and specificity than measurement of serum S100B or NSE.

Ischemic stroke due to intracranial arterial dolichoectasia coexisting with spontaneous dissection of the basilar artery: A case report.

We present a rarely seen case of cerebral infarction due to intracranial dolichoectasia coexisting with spontaneous dissection of the basilar artery. A definition of dolichoectasia, its pathology, and imaging findings, as well as the clinical management and prognosis are briefly reviewed.

Declining Risk of Sudden Death in Heart Failure.

Declining Risk of Sudden Death in Heart Failure.

Declining Risk of Sudden Death in Heart Failure.

Sildenafil Is Associated With Reduced Device Thrombosis and Ischemic Stroke Despite Low-Level Hemolysis on Heart Mate II Support.

Persistent low-level hemolysis (LLH) during continuous-flow mechanical circulatory support is associated with subsequent thrombosis. Free hemoglobin from ongoing hemolysis scavenges nitric oxide (NO) to create an NO deficiency which can augment platelet function leading to a prothrombotic state. The phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, sildenafil, potentiates NO signaling to inhibit platelet function. Accordingly, we investigated the association of sildenafil administration and thrombotic events in patients with LLH during Heart Mate II support.

Declining Risk of Sudden Death in Heart Failure.

HIV protease inhibitor-induced cardiac dysfunction and fibrosis is mediated by platelet-derived TGF-β1 and can be suppressed by exogenous carbon monoxide.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This risk is magnified by certain antiretrovirals, particularly the protease inhibitor ritonavir, but the pathophysiology of this connection is unknown. We postulated that a major mechanism for antiretroviral-associated cardiac disease is pathologic fibrosis linked to platelet activation with release and activation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and that these changes could be modeled in a murine system. We also sought to intervene utilizing inhaled carbon monoxide (CO) as proof-of-concept for therapeutics capable of regulating TGF-β1 signaling and collagen autophagy. We demonstrate decreased cardiac function indices, including cardiac output, ejection fraction and stroke volume, and prominent cardiac fibrosis, in mice exposed to pharmacological doses of ritonavir. Cardiac output and fibrosis correlated with plasma TGF-β1 levels. Mice with targeted deletion of TGF-β1 in megakaryocytes/platelets (PF4CreTgfb1flox/flox) were partially protected from ritonavir-induced cardiac dysfunction and fibrosis. Inhalation of low dose CO (250ppm), used as a surrogate for upregulation of inducible heme oxygenase/endogenous CO pathways, suppressed ritonavir-induced cardiac fibrosis. This occurred in association with modulation of canonical (Smad2) and non-canonical (p38) TGF-β1 signaling pathways. In addition, CO treatment suppressed the M1 pro-inflammatory subset of macrophages and increased M2c regulatory cells in the hearts of RTV-exposed animals. The effects of CO were dependent upon autophagy as CO did not mitigate ritonavir-induced fibrosis in autophagy-deficient LC3-/- mice. These results suggest that platelet-derived TGF-β1 contributes to ritonavir-associated cardiac dysfunction and fibrosis, extending the relevance of our findings to other antiretrovirals that also activate platelets. The anti-fibrotic effects of CO are linked to alterations in TGF-β1 signaling and autophagy, suggesting a proof-of-concept for novel interventions in HIV/antiretroviral therapy-mediated cardiovascular disease.

The Care of Children With Congenital Heart Disease in Their Primary Medical Home.

Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth anomaly. With advances in repair and palliation of these complex lesions, more and more patients are surviving and are discharged from the hospital to return to their families. Patients with CHD have complex health care needs that often must be provided for or coordinated for by the primary care provider (PCP) and medical home. This policy statement aims to provide the PCP with general guidelines for the care of the child with congenital heart defects and outlines anticipated problems, serving as a repository of current knowledge in a practical, readily accessible format. A timeline approach is used, emphasizing the role of the PCP and medical home in the management of patients with CHD in their various life stages.

Mechanisms, Consequences, and Prevention of Coronary Graft Failure.

Graft failure occurs in a sizeable proportion of coronary artery bypass conduits. We herein review relevant current evidence to give an overview of the incidence, pathophysiology, and clinical consequences of this multifactorial phenomenon. Thrombosis, endothelial dysfunction, vasospasm, and oxidative stress are different mechanisms associated with graft failure. Intrinsic morphological and functional features of the bypass conduits play a role in determining failure. Similarly, characteristics of the target coronary vessel, such as the severity of stenosis, the diameter, the extent of atherosclerotic burden, and previous endovascular interventions, are important determinants of graft outcome and must be taken into consideration at the time of surgery. Technical factors, such as the method used to harvest the conduits, the vasodilatory protocol, the storage solution, and the anastomotic technique, also play a major role in determining graft success. Furthermore, systemic atherosclerotic risk factors, such as age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, have been variably associated with graft failure. The failure of a coronary graft is not always correlated with adverse clinical events, which vary according to the type, location, and reason for failed graft. Intraoperative flow verification and secondary prevention using antiplatelet and lipid-lowering agents can help reducing the incidence of graft failure.

Immediate and Midterm Cardiac Remodeling After Surgical Pulmonary Valve Replacement in Adults With Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot: A Prospective Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance and Clinical Study.

Pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot provides symptomatic benefit and right ventricular (RV) volume reduction. However, data on the rate of ventricular structural and functional adaptation are scarce. We aimed to assess immediate and midterm post-PVR changes and predictors of reverse remoeling.