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Bacterial Infections and Mycoses - Top 30 Publications

Antibiotics Dispensed to Privately Insured Pregnant Women with Urinary Tract Infections - United States, 2014.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur in about 8% of pregnant women, and untreated UTIs can have serious consequences, including pyelonephritis, preterm labor, low birth weight, and sepsis (1). Pregnant women are typically screened for UTIs during early pregnancy, and those with bacteriuria are treated with antibiotics (1,2). Antibiotic stewardship is critical to improving patient safety and to combating antibiotic resistance. Because of the potential risk for birth defects, including anencephaly, heart defects, and orofacial clefts, associated with use of sulfonamides and nitrofurantoin during pregnancy (3), a 2011 committee opinion from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommended that sulfonamides and nitrofurantoin may be prescribed in the first trimester of pregnancy only when other antimicrobial therapies are deemed clinically inappropriate (4). To assess the effects of these recommendations, CDC analyzed the Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Database* to examine antibiotic prescriptions filled by pregnant women with UTIs. Among 482,917 pregnancies in 2014, 7.2% of women had an outpatient UTI diagnosis during the 90 days before the date of last menstrual period (LMP) or during pregnancy. Among pregnant women with UTIs, the most frequently prescribed antibiotics during the first trimester were nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, cephalexin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Given the potential risks associated with use of some of these antibiotics in early pregnancy and the potential for unrecognized pregnancy, women's health care providers should be familiar with the ACOG recommendations and consider the possibility of early pregnancy when treating women of reproductive age.

Iris Abscess.

Case 1-2018. A 39-Year-Old Woman with Rapidly Progressive Respiratory Failure.

Left extensive infection in the forearm caused by whitlow infected by mycobacterium tuberculosis: A case report.

Whitlow is a common disease in clinic, characterized by pain and swelling of finger. However, few articles had reported on extensive infection in the forearm caused by whitlow infected by mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).

Primary cutaneous aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus.fumigatus in an immunocompetent patient: A case report.

Primary cutaneous aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients has been well described in extensive investigations. However, in immunocompetent hosts, primary cutaneous infection of aspergillus occurs rarely, and remains poorly characterized.

Isolated cerebral aspergillosis in an immunocompetent woman on treatment for bacterial infected necrotizing pancreatitis: A case report.

Cerebral aspergillosis (CA) is a rare manifestation of invasive aspergillosis. It usually affects seriously immunocompromised hosts. Pancreatic bacterial or/and fungal infection is common in patients with severe acute pancreatitis.

Prevention of surgical site infection after oral cancer surgery by topical tetracycline: Results of a multicenter randomized control trial.

In a pilot study, we showed that topical administration of a tetracycline could decrease oral bacteria levels for 6 hours in patients who underwent oral cancer surgery combined with tracheotomy and flap reconstruction. This multicenter, randomized control trial aimed to investigate the effectiveness of topical application of tetracycline ointment for prevention of surgical site infection (SSI) associated with major oral cancer surgery.

Severe pertussis infection: A clinicopathological study.

We aimed to investigate the clinicopathological features of pertussis in children admitted to a tertiary-care university hospital in Brazil.This was a retrospective cohort study of all pediatric hospital admissions with pertussis from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2014. We also reported the autopsy findings in children who died.Fifty-five patients admitted to the hospital over the study period had laboratorial confirmation of Bordetella pertussis infection, 17 (30.9%) needed pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission and 6 (10.9%) died. All patients who died were younger than 60 days old and unvaccinated for pertussis; 50% of them had coinfection with respiratory syncytial virus. Leukocyte count ≥40,000/mm at hospital admission was an independent risk factor for PICU admission. Mean heart rate during hospitalization ≥160 bpm was an independent risk factor for death. A cut-off point of 41,200 leukocytes/mm at hospital admission had sensitivity of 64.7% and specificity of 89.5% to predict PICU admission (area under the curve 0.75) and sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 81.6% to predict death (area under the curve 0.93). Autopsy showed medial thickening of small pulmonary arteries in 80% of patients who had pulmonary hypertension; intravascular aggregates of leukocytes or pulmonary thrombosis were not observed. Immunohistochemical staining of tissue samples obtained at autopsy identified B pertussis and respiratory syncytial virus in pulmonary and extra-pulmonary sites.Marked leukocytosis at presentation was associated with morbidity and mortality in children hospitalized with pertussis. Implementation of preventive strategies is crucial to diminish the incidence of the disease, especially in young unimmunized infants.

Delays in the diagnosis and treatment of bone and joint tuberculosis in the United Kingdom.

Tuberculosis (TB) infection of bones and joints accounts for 6.7% of TB cases in England, and is associated with significant morbidity and disability. Public Health England reports that patients with TB experience delays in diagnosis and treatment. Our aims were to determine the demographics, presentation and investigation of patients with a TB infection of bones and joints, to help doctors assessing potential cases and to identify avoidable delays.

Synovasure 'quick test' is not as accurate as the laboratory-based α-defensin immunoassay: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

α-defensin is a biomarker which has been described as having a high degree of accuracy in the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). Current meta-analyses are based on the α-defensin laboratory-based immunoassay rather than the quick on-table lateral flow test kit. This study is the first meta-analysis to compare the accuracy of the α-defensin laboratory-based immunoassay and the lateral flow test kit for the diagnosis of PJI.

2017: a year in review.

Global Burden of Rheumatic Heart Disease.

Global Burden of Rheumatic Heart Disease.

Global Burden of Rheumatic Heart Disease.

Global Burden of Rheumatic Heart Disease.

Global Burden of Rheumatic Heart Disease.

Global Burden of Rheumatic Heart Disease.

Enhancing Recovery From Sepsis: A Review.

Survival from sepsis has improved in recent years, resulting in an increasing number of patients who have survived sepsis treatment. Current sepsis guidelines do not provide guidance on posthospital care or recovery.

Postsepsis Morbidity.

Two-stage revision for the culture-negative infected total hip arthroplasty : A comparative study.

Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains a challenging complication following total hip arthroplasty (THA). It is associated with high levels of morbidity, mortality and expense. Guidelines and protocols exist for the management of culture-positive patients. Managing culture-negative patients with a PJI poses a greater challenge to surgeons and the wider multidisciplinary team as clear guidance is lacking.

Diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax in resource-poor settings in West Arsi Province, Ethiopia.

Cutaneous anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis, which typically presents with ulcers after contact with animals or animal products, and is rarely seen in high-income countries but is common in those with low- and middle-incomes. Objective. The aim of this study is to show the main clinical characteristics of cutaneous anthrax in endemic areas.

Serological prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goats and ewes diagnosed with adverse pregnancy outcomes in Greece.

<i>Coxiella burnetii</i> is an obligatory intracellular bacterial pathogen causing the zoonotic disease Q fever. The most common reservoirs of <i>C. burnetii</i> are wild mammals, birds and ticks. Pregnant domestic ruminants infected with this bacterium are also a major source of human infection.

Design, construction and evaluation of multi-epitope antigens for diagnosis of Lyme disease.

Introduction and objective. Lyme disease (LD) is the most common vector-borne disease in the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis of LD is mainly based on clinical symptoms supported with serology (detection of anti-<i>Borrelia</i> antibodies) and is often misdiagnosed in areas of endemicity.

Streptococcus suis: a re-emerging pathogen associated with occupational exposure to pigs or pork products. Part I - Epidemiology.

<i>Streptococcus suis</i> (ex Elliot 1966, Kilpper-Bälz & Schleifer 1987) is a facultatively anaerobic Gram-positive ovoid or coccal bacterium surrounded by a polysaccharide capsule. Based on the antigenic diversity of the capsule, <i>S. suis</i> strains are classified serologically into 35 serotypes. <i>Streptococcus suis</i> is a commensal of pigs, commonly colonizing their tonsils and nasal cavities, mostly in weaning piglets between 4-10 weeks of age. This species occurs also in cattle and other mammals, in birds and in humans. Some strains, mostly those belonging to serotype 2, are also pathogenic for pigs, as well as for other animals and humans. Meningitis is the primary disease syndrome caused by <i>S. suis</i>, both in pigs and in humans. It is estimated that meningitis accounted for 68.0% of all cases of human disease reported until the end of 2012, followed by septicaemia (including life-threatening condition described as 'streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome' - STSLS), arthritis, endocarditis, and endophthalmitis. Hearing loss and/or ves tibular dysfunction are the most common sequelae after recovery from meningitis caused by <i>S. suis</i>, occurring in more than 50% of patients. In the last two decades, the number of reported human cases due to <i>S. suis</i> has dramatically increased, mostly due to epidemics recorded in China in 1998 and 2005, and the fulminant increase in morbidity in the countries of south-eastern Asia, mostly Vietnam and Thailand. Out of 1,642 cases of <i>S. suis</i> infections identified between 2002-2013 worldwide in humans, 90.2% occurred in Asia, 8.5% in Europe and 1.3% in other parts of the globe. The human disease has mostly a zoonotic and occupational origin and occurs in pig breeders, abattoir workers, butchers and workers of meat processing facilities, veterinarians and meat inspectors. Bacteria are transmitted to workers by close contact with pigs or pig products, usually through contamination of minor cuts or abrasions on skin of hands and/or arms, or by pig bite. A different epidemiologic situation occurs in the Southeast Asian countries where most people become infected by habitual consumption of raw or undercooked pork, blood and offal products in the form of traditional dishes. Prevention of <i>S. suis</i> infections in pigs includes vaccination, improvement in pig-raising conditions, disinfection and/or fumigation of animal houses, and isolation of sick animals at the outbreak of disease. Prevention of human infections comprises: protection of skin from pig bite or injury with sharp tools by people occupationally exposed to pigs and pig products, prompt disinfection and dressing of wounds and abrasions at work, protection of the respiratory tract by wearing appropriate masks or repirators, consulting a doctor in the case of febrile illness after exposure to pigs or pork meat, avoidance of occupations associated with exposure to pigs and pork by immunocompomised people, avoidance of consumption of raw pork or pig blood, adequate cooking of pork, and health education.

Changes in leptospirosis etiology in animals and humans.

Leptospirosis is endemic in Ternopil region. In Ukraine, the disease is registered in almost all regions, including the Ternopil region. The aim of the research is to study the regularities of epidemic and epizootic processes of leptospirosis, and the circulation of its pathogens among different sources (small mammals, animals) and humans.

Humanitarian quarantine in practice: medicine, religion and leprosy in New Caledonia.

Medicine and religion worked in close synchronisation during the leprosy outbreak of New Caledonia (1890-1950). Once isolation of leprosy-affected people became mandatory doctors and missionaries came together to promote a particular form of medical practice that tied charitable zeal with cutting-edge medical research, developing a sophisticated set of medical practices that catered for the soul as well as the body. Such practices went hand-in-hand with ideas developed by doctors in the earlier stages of the epidemic about the way in which the disease had entered the Kanak (local Melanesian) population. Doctors and missionaries admitted that immoral colonial channels had upset the delicate balance of local social and biological rhythms. Yet they also believed that the highly contagious nature of the outbreak was linked to the inferior state of Kanak. This paper aims to highlight the way in which the leprosaria system in New Caledonia represented a double-edged moral high-ground within the French medical colonial narrative. It tracks the complex way in which emotionally charged arguments about contagion, science and spirituality constructed an ideology of humanitarian quarantine which was used to justify a highly aggressive form of medical biocontrol.

A Trial of Antibiotics for Smaller Skin Abscesses.

A Trial of Antibiotics for Smaller Skin Abscesses.

Talaromyces marneffei Infection.

A Trial of Antibiotics for Smaller Skin Abscesses.