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Bacterial Infections and Mycoses - Top 30 Publications

Aseptic and Bacterial Meningitis: Evaluation, Treatment, and Prevention.

The etiologies of meningitis range in severity from benign and self-limited to life-threatening with potentially severe morbidity. Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency that requires prompt recognition and treatment. Mortality remains high despite the introduction of vaccinations for common pathogens that have reduced the incidence of meningitis worldwide. Aseptic meningitis is the most common form of meningitis with an annual incidence of 7.6 per 100,000 adults. Most cases of aseptic meningitis are viral and require supportive care. Viral meningitis is generally self-limited with a good prognosis. Examination maneuvers such as Kernig sign or Brudzinski sign may not be useful to differentiate bacterial from aseptic meningitis because of variable sensitivity and specificity. Because clinical findings are also unreliable, the diagnosis relies on the examination of cerebrospinal fluid obtained from lumbar puncture. Delayed initiation of antibiotics can worsen mortality. Treatment should be started promptly in cases where transfer, imaging, or lumbar puncture may slow a definitive diagnosis. Empiric antibiotics should be directed toward the most likely pathogens and should be adjusted by patient age and risk factors. Dexamethasone should be administered to children and adults with suspected bacterial meningitis before or at the time of initiation of antibiotics. Vaccination against the most common pathogens that cause bacterial meningitis is recommended. Chemoprophylaxis of close contacts is helpful in preventing additional infections.

Streptococcus anginosus Group Bacterial Infections.

The Streptococcus anginosus group (SAG) causes a variety of infections in adults. To better understand the burden of SAG infections and their associated morbidity and mortality, we conducted a retrospective analysis of these infections in adults at a tertiary care center.

A comparative study on the efficacy of praziquantel and albendazole in the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in Adim, Cross River State, Nigeria.

Praziquantel (PZQ) is the current drug of choice for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in endemic areas. It is very efficacious, although the potential for the development of resistance has been reported in some endemic areas among human subjects and in animal studies. Its' limitation include high cost and administration of multiple numbers of tablets. Albendazole (ALB) is used in the treatment of intestinal helminths infection. It is a broad-spectrum single-dose antihelminthic with an excellent cure rate and safety criteria. Currently, it is not routinely used for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis.

Azole-Resistant Aspergillosis: Epidemiology, Molecular Mechanisms, and Treatment.

Aspergillus fumigatus remains the most common species in all pulmonary syndromes, followed by Aspergillus flavus which is a common cause of allergic rhinosinusitis, postoperative aspergillosis and fungal keratitis. The manifestations of Aspergillus infections include invasive aspergillosis, chronic pulmonary aspergillosis and bronchitis. Allergic manifestations of inhaled Aspergillus include allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and severe asthma with fungal sensitization. Triazoles are the mainstay of therapy against Aspergillus infections for treatment and prophylaxis. Lately, increased azole resistance in A. fumigatus has become a significant challenge in effective management of aspergillosis. Earlier studies have brought to light the contribution of non-cyp51 mutations along with alterations in cyp51A gene resulting in azole-resistant phenotypes of A. fumigatus. This review highlights the magnitude of azole-resistant aspergillosis and resistance mechanisms implicated in the development of azole-resistant A. fumigatus and address the therapeutic options available.

Multidrug-Resistant Candida: Epidemiology, Molecular Mechanisms, and Treatment.

Invasive Candida infections remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in hospitalized and immunocompromised or critically ill patients. A limited number of antifungal agents from only a few drug classes are available to treat patients with these serious infections. Resistance can be either intrinsic or acquired. Resistance mechanisms are not exchanged between Candida; thus, acquired resistance either emerges in response to an antifungal selection pressure in the individual patient or, more rarely, occur due to horizontal transmission of resistant strains between patients. Although multidrug resistance is uncommon, increasing reports of multidrug resistance to the azoles, echinocandins, and polyenes have occurred in several Candida species, most notably Candida glabrata and more recently Candida auris. Drivers are overall antifungal use, subtherapeutic drug levels at sites of infection/colonization, drug sequestration in the biofilm matrix, and, in the setting of outbreaks, suboptimal infection control. Moreover, recent research suggests that DNA mismatch repair gene mutations may facilitate acquisition of resistance mutations in C. glabrata specifically. Diagnosis of antifungal-resistant Candida infections is critical to the successful management of patients with these infections. Reduction of unnecessary use of antifungals via antifungal stewardship is critical to limit multidrug resistance emergence.

Occupational Animal Exposure Among Persons with Campylobacteriosis and Cryptosporidiosis - Nebraska, 2005-2015.

Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium are two common causes of gastroenteritis in the United States. National incidence rates measured for these pathogens in 2015 were 17.7 and 3.0 per 100,000 population, respectively; Nebraska was among the states with the highest incidence for both campylobacteriosis (26.6) and cryptosporidiosis (≥6.01) (1). Although campylobacteriosis and cryptosporidiosis are primarily transmitted via consumption of contaminated food or water, they can also be acquired through contact with live animals or animal products, including through occupational exposure (2). This exposure route is of particular interest in Nebraska, where animal agriculture and associated industries are an important part of the state's economy. To estimate the percentage of disease that might be related to occupational animal exposure in Nebraska, the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services (NDHHS) and CDC reviewed deidentified investigation reports from 2005 to 2015 of cases of campylobacteriosis and cryptosporidiosis among Nebraska residents aged ≥14 years. Case investigation notes were searched for evidence of occupational animal exposures, which were classified into discrete categories based on industry, animal/meat, and specific work activity/exposure. Occupational animal exposure was identified in 16.6% of 3,352 campylobacteriosis and 8.7% of 1,070 cryptosporidiosis cases, among which animal production (e.g., farming or ranching) was the most commonly mentioned industry type (68.2% and 78.5%, respectively), followed by employment in animal slaughter and processing facilities (16.3% and 5.4%, respectively). Among animal/meat occupational exposures, cattle/beef was most commonly mentioned, with exposure to feedlots (concentrated animal feeding operations in which animals are fed on stored feeds) reported in 29.9% of campylobacteriosis and 7.9% of cryptosporidiosis cases. Close contact with animals and manure in feedlots and other farm settings might place workers in these areas at increased risk for infection. It is important to educate workers with occupational animal exposure about the symptoms of enteric diseases and prevention measures. Targeting prevention strategies to high-risk workplaces and activities could help reduce disease.

Assessment of Hospital Emergency Department Response to Potentially Infectious Diseases Using Unannounced Mystery Patient Drills - New York City, 2016.

Recent outbreaks of infectious diseases have revealed significant health care system vulnerabilities and highlighted the importance of rapid recognition and isolation of patients with potentially severe infectious diseases. During December 2015-May 2016, a series of unannounced "mystery patient drills" was carried out to assess New York City Emergency Departments' (EDs) abilities to identify and respond to patients with communicable diseases of public health concern. Drill scenarios presented a patient reporting signs or symptoms and travel history consistent with possible measles or Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). Evaluators captured key infection control performance measures, including time to patient masking and isolation. Ninety-five drills (53 measles and 42 MERS) were conducted in 49 EDs with patients masked and isolated in 78% of drills. Median time from entry to masking was 1.5 minutes (range = 0-47 minutes) and from entry to isolation was 8.5 minutes (range = 1-57). Hospitals varied in their ability to identify potentially infectious patients and implement recommended infection control measures in a timely manner. Drill findings were used to inform hospital improvement planning to more rapidly and consistently identify and isolate patients with a potentially highly infectious disease.

Characteristics of infection and its impact on short-term outcome in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure.

Bacterial infections are an important cause of mortality in liver failure. However, the type of infection, predictors of infection, and their impact on outcomes in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) are limited.A total of 389 patients with ACLF were admitted in this retrospective, corhort study. Once admitted, clinical data including first infection site, type (community-acquired, healthcare-associated, or nosocomial), and second infection occurrence during hospitalization were collected. The outcome was mortality within 90 days. Multivariable logistic regression models were preformed to predict second infection development and 90-day mortality. Survival probability curves were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method.Among 389 patients, 316 (81.2%) patients had infection. The 90-day mortality of patients with and without infection was 52.2% and 16.4%, respectively (P <.001). The most common first infection was healthcare associated (51.3%), followed by nosocomial (30.1%) and community-acquired infections (18.7%). Respiratory tract infection, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and urinary tract infection were most prevalent. Gram-positive organism was more frequently seen than gram-negative organisms. Of note, fungi accounted for 15.9% of the total infection cases. During hospitalization, 26.6% patients developed second infections. The 90-day mortality of patients developed or did not develop a second infection were 67.9% and 46.6%, respectively (P <.001). Independent predictors of 90-day mortality in infected patients with ACLF were age, white blood cell (WBC) count, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, hepatic encephalopathy (HE), and second infection.Infections (regardless of first or second infection) can increase the 90-day mortality significantly in patients with ACLF. And age, WBC count, MELD score, HE, and the presence of second infection are independent risk factors affecting 90-day mortality in patients with ACLF showing infection.

Clinical and microbiological characteristics of pyogenic liver abscess in a tertiary hospital in East China.

Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is a potentially life-threatening disease affecting many parts of the world, especially Asia. In this study, we explored the clinical and microbiological characteristics of PLA in Chinese patients.A 5-year (2010-2014) retrospective review of medical records on all PLA patients who were admitted to a tertiary teaching hospital was performed.Among 217 PLA cases who were confirmed cultural positive, Klebsiella pneumonia (K pneumonia) was the most common pathogen (n = 165, 76.0%), followed by Escherichia coli (n = 21, 9.7%). Notably, there is a higher incidence of diabetes mellitus in patients with K pneumoniae-induced PLA (KP-PLA) than that with non-K pneumoniae-induced PLA (non-KP-PLA)(43.0% vs 21.2%, P = .005). However, it was less prevalent for concomitant hepatobiliary disease (20.0% vs 34.6%, P = .039) and history of intraabdominal trauma or surgery (13.3% vs 38.5%, P < .001) in patients with KP-PLA. Although K pneumoniae are sensitive to most common antibiotics (antibiotic resistance rates below 10%), some strains (1.2%) developed resistant to carbapenem. These results confirmed K pneumoniae as the predominant pathogen of PLA in the area in which the study was conducted. More attention should be directed toward monitoring the emergence of carbapenem-resistant K pneumoniae.KP-PLA is frequently diagnosed in patients with metabolic diseases accompanied by serious consequences, and it is therefore prudent to see that they receive sensitivity-directed antibiotic therapy.

The antibiotic susceptibility patterns of uropathogens among children with urinary tract infection in Shiraz.

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections in pediatrics. Delay in diagnosis and treatment can cause significant morbidity. The physicians knowledge regarding the symptoms, microorganisms that caused UTI, and effective antibiotics in a geographical area can help them to select the appropriate antibiotics. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of bacteria that cause UTI and their susceptibility to common antibiotics as well as the common symptoms and associated factors in children of Shiraz, Southern Iran.This cross sectional study was performed among 202 children with UTI, aged 2 months to 18 years old, between August and November 2014 in pediatric medical centers of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Urine samples were collected using urinary catheter or suprapubic in children < 2 years and mid-stream in children over 2 years, respectively. The type of micro-organisms causing UTI was determined and evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility for each organism was assayed by the Kirby Bauer method using antibiogram test. Patient's information was collected through checking the medical documents and interview with parents.Our results showed that the frequency of UTI was significantly higher in girls (70.3%) than in boys. The most commonly discovered pathogens were Escherichia coli (E coli) (51.5%), followed by Klebsiella spp. (16.8%), and Enterococcus spp. (9.9%). Overall susceptibility test showed the highest resistance to ampicillin (81.2%) and cotrimoxazole (79.2%), and the highest sensitivity to imipenem (90.1%) and Gentamicin (65.3%). Gram negative and positive bacteria showed the highest antibiotic resistance to amoxicillin (83.8%) and clindamycin (100%), respectively. In addition, production of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) was 69.2% and 30.8% in E coli and Kelebsiella respectively.The efficacy of third generation of the cephalosporins was reduced because of the high rate of production of ESBL and drug resistance. These results inform the physician as to which antibiotics are appropriate to prescribe for the patient, as well as urine culture reports and following the patient's clinical response so that high antimicrobial resistance is not developed at the community level.

Plastic wound protectors decreased surgical site infections following laparoscopic-assisted colectomy for colorectal cancer: A retrospective cohort study.

Laparoscopic surgery is widespread and safe for the management of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Although the use of standard surgical techniques can prevent perioperative wound infections, surgical site infections (SSIs) remain an unresolved complication in laparoscopic-assisted colectomy. The present study investigated the ability of plastic wound protectors applied to the extraction incision during the externalized portion of the procedure to reduce the rate of infection in laparoscopic-assisted colectomy. We completed a retrospective review of the medical records of patients who underwent nonemergent laparoscopic-assisted between January 2015 and June 2016. Outcomes for patients with and without the use of a wound protector were compared. A total of 109 patients were included in this study. There was 1 patient in the wound protector group (n = 57) and 7 in the nonwound protector group (n = 52) who developed a wound infection at the colon extraction site (P = .02). Furthermore, the average postoperative hospital stay in the wound protector group was shorter compared to the nonwound protector group (7.47 ± 0.24 vs 8.73 ± 0.54 days, P = .03). In conclusion, this study indicates that the use of a plastic wound protector during laparoscope-assisted colectomy does reduce postoperative wound infection rates, and the wound protectors are beneficial for specimen extraction and digestive tract reconstruction.

Tuberculous meningoencephalitis revealed by psychiatric disorders: about a case.

Tuberculous meningoencephalitis is fairly frequent in endemic countries and it is the most severe form of tuberculosis. Therapeutic failure is common because of diagnostic delay. This delay is primarily due to a wide clinical polymorphism and, in particular, to misleading forms. We here report a rare clinical case of tuberculous meningitis in a patient in prodromal phase of psychosis.

Leprosy in children in the region of Thiès, Senegal: study determining whether or not it is a signal of recrudescence.

Leprosy is an infectious and transmissible disease. According to the WHO, the number of new cases of leprosy in children in Senegal has risen moderately since 2013. This study aimed to analyze the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic and evolutionary features of leprosy in children in the geographical areas of two social rehabilitation villages in the region of Thiès. We conducted a retrospective study over a period of 3 years (2013-2015). All new cases of Hansen's disease aged 0 -15 years were included. Over the three year period, 39 children were included in the study, with a boy predominance (n=23, 59%). Among these children, 27 (66.7%) came from a social rehabilitation village for leprosy patients. One family member was affected by leprosy in 27 cases (69.2%). More than half of the children (23 cases, 58.9%) had multibacillary leprosy (lepromatous-lepromatous). All children underwent a 12-month treatment, at the end of which thirty-six (92.3%) children were healed. Leprosy is still present in Senegal despite the efforts made by the national programme to combat leprosy. In the light of these results, it is important to emphasize the role of active screening strategy targeted to children, which seems to have shown its effectiveness in the region. Early detection, contact tracing and early treatment are important factors in the reduction of the contagiousity of leprosy.

Descriptive epidemiology of a cholera outbreak in Kaduna State, Northwest Nigeria, 2014.

Cholera is an acute gastrointestinal infection caused by Vibrio cholerae, which may lead to severe dehydration and death if not treated. This analysis is aimed at highlighting the magnitude, pattern and trend of cholera outbreak that occurred in Kaduna State in 2014.

Pulmonary nocardiosis in immunocompetent patients: about 2 cases.

Nocardiosis is a rare but severe infection caused by bacteria of the genus nocardia, which belong to the order actinomycetales. If they can affect immunocompetent adult, nocardioses are pathologies affecting the individuals with weakened immune system. Pulmonary involvement is the most common manifestation, its correct management is based on diagnosis, which is often delayed due to non-specific symptoms and inconclusive specimens. We here report two cases of nocardiosis in immunocompetent patients. The first case concerns a 24-year old man with a history of smoking and alcoholism, hospitalized for chest pain and hemoptysis of low abundance evolving for two months, associated with the occurrence of dorsal subcutaneous fistulized abscess. Radiological assessment showed right mediastino-pulmonary tissue mass associated with adjacent costal lysis and dissemination in rights paravertebral tissues. Bacteriological sampling remained negative motivating ultrasound-guided biopsy of the lesion, which confirmed the diagnosis of nocardia infection. The second case concerns a 22-year old man with a history of pleural tuberculosis treated 8 years ago and of relapse of tuberculosis in 2011 (mediastinal abscess). He was admitted to hospital due to suspicion of relapse of tuberculosis based on chronic cough with alteration of general state and hepatosplenomegaly. Chest CT scan showed alveolar condensations with pleurisy. During his hospitalization, purulent subcutaneous swellings occurred. Bacteriological analysis of the pus confirmed the diagnosis of nocardiosis. Nocardia strains were resistant to all antibiotics except for colistin and bactrim. This study aims to highlight the clinical and radiological aspects of pulmonary nocardiosis, focusing on diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties especially in a country with a high prevalence of tuberculosis and a very low incidence of nocardiosis.

Mutations in rpoB and katG genes of multidrug resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis undetectable using genotyping diagnostic methods.

Tuberculosis remains the leading causes of death worldwide with frequencies of mutations in rifampicin and isoniazid resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates varying according to geographical location. There is limited information in Zimbabwe on specific antibiotic resistance gene mutation patterns in MTB and hence, increased rate of discordant results and mortality due to inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions. The rpoB and katG genes molecular markers are used for detecting rifampicin and isoniazid resistance respectively. Some mutations within these gene sequences are associated with drug resistance as they directly alter gene function. The objectives of this research was to determine the drug resistance profiles in M. tuberculosis isolates that are phenotypically resistant but not detected by the GeneXpert and MTBDRplus kit and also to detect mutations in the rpoB and katG genes which are not detected by the Hain Genotype MTBDRplus kit and GeneXpert diagnosis.

Brief Report: High Need to Switch cART or Comedication With the Initiation of DAAs in Elderly HIV/HCV-Coinfected Patients.

To describe the use of nonantiretroviral comedication and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in patients coinfected with HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) and to predict the potential for drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) against HCV.

Case 28-2017. A 13-Month-Old Girl with Pneumonia and a 33-Year-Old Woman with Hip Pain.

Topical Cross-Linked HA-Based Hydrogel Accelerates Closure of Corneal Epithelial Defects and Repair of Stromal Ulceration in Companion Animals.

The purpose of this study was to determine the safety of topical ocular administration of a cross-linked, modified hyaluronic acid (xCMHA-S) hydrogel, and its effectiveness in accelerating repair and closure of acute and nonhealing corneal ulcers in companion animals as a veterinary treatment and its utility as a model for therapy in human corneal ulceration.

Applying the 15 Public Health Emergency Preparedness Capabilities to Support Large-Scale Tuberculosis Investigations in Complex Congregate Settings.

Public Health-Seattle and King County, a metropolitan health department in western Washington, experiences rates of tuberculosis (TB) that are 1.6 times higher than are state and national averages. The department's TB Control Program uses public health emergency management tools and capabilities sustained with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention grant funding to manage large-scale complex case investigations. We have described 3 contact investigations in large congregate settings that the TB Control Program conducted in 2015 and 2016. The program managed the investigations using public health emergency management tools, with support from the Preparedness Program. The 3 investigations encompassed medical evaluation of more than 1600 people, used more than 100 workers, identified nearly 30 individuals with latent TB infection, and prevented an estimated 3 cases of active disease. These incidents exemplify how investments in public health emergency preparedness can enhance health outcomes in traditional areas of public health.

A 62-Year-Old Woman With Wheezing, Respiratory Failure, and an Abnormal CT Scan.

A previously healthy 62-year-old woman was transferred to the ICU from the medical ward with acute bronchospastic respiratory failure requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. Four weeks before, the patient was vacationing in Arizona and acquired a mildly productive cough as well as mild dyspnea. She presented to an urgent care facility and was diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia. She received a 5-day course of azithromycin, with partial improvement of her symptoms. The patient returned home 1 week prior to admission, reporting worsening dyspnea, chest pressure, cough, and fever. The patient was admitted to the medical ward, and treatment for unresolved pneumonia was begun with levofloxacin, an inhaled short-acting beta agonist, and oral prednisone. Despite this treatment, the patient experienced severe respiratory distress with audible wheezing as well as increased work of breathing. She was intubated for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and transferred to the ICU.

Age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity score is associated with the risk of empyema in patients with COPD.

Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have a higher risk of pneumonia than the general population due to their impaired lung defense. They also have a higher risk of empyema and more comorbidities than patients without COPD. This study aimed to evaluate the risk of empyema in patients with COPD after adjusting for age and comorbidities using the age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (ACCI).Data were retrieved from the National Health Insurance Research Database. COPD patients were defined as inpatients aged >40 years with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis code for COPD. In total, 558,660 COPD patients were enrolled and separated into 3 groups by ACCI score to represent the severity of comorbidity (≤2, 3-5, and >5). Other comorbidities assessed included autoimmune diseases, gastroesophageal reflux disease, dyslipidemia, chest wall injury, and thoracostomy.Of the 558,660 patients, 36,556 (6.54%) had low ACCI scores (≤2), 208,292 (37.28%) had moderate ACCI scores (3-5), and 313,812 (56.17%) had high ACCI scores (>5). The mean ages of the low, moderate, and high groups were 50.66, 70.62, and 78.05 years, respectively. The hazard ratio (HRs) for empyema were 1.26 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13-1.40) in the moderate ACCI group and 1.55 (95% CI = 1.39-1.72) in the high ACCI group compared with the low ACCI group. The overall incidence of empyema in COPD patients was 2.57 per 1000 person-years.This is the first study to use ACCI scores to analyze the risk of empyema in patients with COPD. Patients with high ACCI scores were older and had more complicated comorbidities, resulting in a higher risk of empyema and poor prognosis. The subgroup analysis indicated that COPD patients with comorbid autoimmune disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, chest wall injury, or history of thoracostomy did not have a higher risk of empyema than patients without these comorbidities.Empyema is an important issue in patients with COPD and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Awareness of the risk factors for empyema, close monitoring, and early intervention may improve patient outcomes and decrease mortality.

Comparative effectiveness of azithromycin for treating scrub typhus: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis.

Scrub typhus is a zoonotic disease that remains an important health threat in endemic areas. Appropriate anti-rickettsial treatment ensures a successful recovery. Doxycycline is a recommended drug, but it is contraindicated in pregnant women and young children. Azithromycin is a safer alternative drug, but its effectiveness remains largely unclear. Herein, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effectiveness of azithromycin.

Population-based cohort study investigating the correlation of diabetes mellitus with pleural empyema in adults in Taiwan.

We assessed the association between diabetes mellitus and the risk of pleural empyema in Taiwan.A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. There were 28,802 subjects aged 20 to 84 years who were newly diagnosed with diabetes mellitus from 2000 to 2010 as the diabetes group and 114,916 randomly selected subjects without diabetes mellitus as the non-diabetes group. The diabetes group and the non-diabetes group were matched by sex, age, comorbidities, and the year of index date. The incidence of pleural empyema at the end of 2011 was estimated. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for pleural empyema associated with diabetes mellitus.The overall incidence of pleural empyema was 1.65-fold higher in the diabetes group than that in the non-diabetes group (1.58 vs 0.96 per 10,000 person-years, 95% CI 1.57-1.72). After adjusting for confounders, a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model revealed that the adjusted HR of pleural empyema was 1.71 in subjects with diabetes mellitus (95% CI 1.16-2.51), compared with those without diabetes mellitus. In further analysis, even in the absence of any comorbidity, the adjusted HR was 1.99 for subjects with diabetes mellitus alone (95% CI 1.18-3.38).Diabetic patients confer a 1.71-fold increased hazard of developing pleural empyema. Even in the absence of any comorbidity, the risk remains existent.

Cholera, 2016.

Dental procedures, antibiotic prophylaxis, and endocarditis among people with prosthetic heart valves: nationwide population based cohort and a case crossover study.

Objective To assess the relation between invasive dental procedures and infective endocarditis associated with oral streptococci among people with prosthetic heart valves.Design Nationwide population based cohort and a case crossover study.Setting French national health insurance administrative data linked with the national hospital discharge database.Participants All adults aged more than 18 years, living in France, with medical procedure codes for positioning or replacement of prosthetic heart valves between July 2008 and July 2014.Main outcome measures Oral streptococcal infective endocarditis was identified using primary discharge diagnosis codes. In the cohort study, Poisson regression models were performed to estimate the rate of oral streptococcal infective endocarditis during the three month period after invasive dental procedures compared with non-exposure periods. In the case crossover study, conditional logistic regression models calculated the odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals comparing exposure to invasive dental procedures during the three month period preceding oral streptococcal infective endocarditis (case period) with three earlier control periods.Results The cohort included 138 876 adults with prosthetic heart valves (285 034 person years); 69 303 (49.9%) underwent at least one dental procedure. Among the 396 615 dental procedures performed, 103 463 (26.0%) were invasive and therefore presented an indication for antibiotic prophylaxis, which was performed in 52 280 (50.1%). With a median follow-up of 1.7 years, 267 people developed infective endocarditis associated with oral streptococci (incidence rate 93.7 per 100 000 person years, 95% confidence interval 82.4 to 104.9). Compared with non-exposure periods, no statistically significant increased rate of oral streptococcal infective endocarditis was observed during the three months after an invasive dental procedure (relative rate 1.25, 95% confidence interval 0.82 to 1.82; P=0.26) and after an invasive dental procedure without antibiotic prophylaxis (1.57, 0.90 to 2.53; P=0.08). In the case crossover analysis, exposure to invasive dental procedures was more frequent during case periods than during matched control periods (5.1% v 3.2%; odds ratio 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 2.63; P=0.03).Conclusion Invasive dental procedures may contribute to the development of infective endocarditis in adults with prosthetic heart valves.

Early, Goal-Directed Therapy for Septic Shock - A Patient-Level Meta-Analysis

Independent Preoperative Predictors of Prolonged Length of Stay after Laparoscopic Appendectomy in Patients Over 30 Years of Age: Experience from a Single Institution.

Prompt discharge after laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) is a marker of quality of care, fiscally desirable and feasible in select patients. Patients over 30 comprise a more heterogeneous cohort known to experience worse outcomes after LA. We aimed to identify easily available preoperative risk factors portending a postoperative length of stay ≥2 days among patients above age 30. In this investigation, 296 included patients from a single institution who underwent LA for acute appendicitis from 2010 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed for preoperative demographics, laboratory studies, comorbidities, presentation characteristics, radiographic finding, and other rationally selected factors for association with postoperative length of stay ≥2 days. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was conducted to determine independent risk factors, which were subsequently modeled via receiver-operating characteristic curve generation and Kaplan-Meier analysis. "Classic" presentation [odds ratio (OR) = 0.5, P = .02], elevated red cell distribution width (RDW; OR = 1.5/% increase, P = 0.004) as well as evidence of rupture on CT (OR = 6.9, P < 0.001) were independently associated with postoperative length of stay ≥ 2 days. Modeling length of stay using these factors generated an area under the curve of 0.713 ± 0.037. Kaplan-Meier analysis of "classic" presentation, elevated RDW, and evidence of rupture on CT through the fifth postoperative day generated log-rank P values of 0.02, 0.05, and ≤ 0.001, respectively. In summary, lack of "classic" presentation, elevated RDW, and CT evidence of rupture are novel risk factors for prolonged postoperative length of stay in LA patients over 30. These findings may help target patients most appropriate for prompt discharge.

Use of Antibiotic-Impregnated Absorbable Beads and Tissue Coverage of Complex Wounds.

The treatment of complex wounds is commonplace for plastic surgeons. Standard management is debridement of infected and devitalized tissue and systemic antibiotic therapy. In cases where vital structures are exposed within the wound, coverage is obtained with the use of vascularized tissue using both muscle and fasciocutaneous flaps. The use of nondissolving polymethylmethacrylate and absorbable antibiotic-impregnated beads has been shown to deliver high concentrations of antibiotics with low systemic levels of the same antibiotic. We present a multicenter retrospective review of all cases that used absorbable antibiotic-impregnated beads for complex wound management from 2003 to 2013. A total of 104 cases were investigated, flap coverage was used in 97 cases (93.3%). Overall, 15 patients (14.4%) required reoperation with the highest groups involving orthopedic wounds and sternal wounds. The advantages of using absorbable antibiotic-impregnated beads in complex infected wounds have been demonstrated with minimal disadvantages. The utilization of these beads is expanding to a variety of complex infectious wounds requiring high concentrations of local antibiotics.

Zoonotic Chlamydia caviae Presenting as Community-Acquired Pneumonia.