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neprilysin - Top 30 Publications

Neprilysin inhibitors: A new hope to halt the diabetic cardiovascular and renal complications?

Diabetes is an enormous and ever-growing calamity and a global public health threat of the 21st century. Besides insulin and oral hypoglycaemic drugs, blockage of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) denotes a key pharmacotherapy for the management of cardiovascular (CVD) and chronic kidney diseases (CKD), which are the leading causes of disability and death among diabetic patients. Neprilysin (NEP) inhibition, auxiliary to RAS blockage increases the bioavailability of natriuretic peptides and benefits the cardio-renal system. Omapatrilat, a dual angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and NEP inhibitor has been reported to show superior anti-hypertensive, anti-atherosclerotic, insulin-sensitizing, cardiovascular and renoprotective effects to ACE inhibitors in experimental animal models for diabetes. In clinical trials on hypertensive subjects Omapatrilat increased the risk of angioedema due to which its further development as anti-hypertensive drug was hampered. This event prompted the development of angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors (ARNi). The first representative of ARNi, LCZ696 (Sacubitril/ Valsartan) halted cardiovascular and renal functional decline and hence protected against CKD and CVD. Recently, LCZ696 was approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of heart failure. This concise review intends to summarise the currently available reports on NEPi as a therapeutic intervention to treat CVD and CKD associated with diabetes.

Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Sacubitril/Valsartan (LCZ696): A Novel Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor.

Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) is indicated for the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Absorption of sacubitril/valsartan and conversion of sacubitril (prodrug) to sacubitrilat (neprilysin inhibitor) was rapid with maximum plasma concentrations of sacubitril, sacubitrilat, and valsartan (angiotensin receptor blocker) reaching within 0.5, 1.5-2.0, and 2.0-3.0 h, respectively. With a two-fold increase in dose, an increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve was proportional for sacubitril, ~1.9-fold for sacubitrilat, and ~1.7-fold for valsartan in healthy subjects. Following multiple twice-daily administration, steady-state maximum plasma concentration was reached within 3 days, showing no accumulation for sacubitril and valsartan, while ~1.6-fold accumulation for sacubitrilat. Sacubitril is eliminated predominantly as sacubitrilat through the kidney; valsartan is eliminated mainly by biliary route. Drug-drug interactions of sacubitril/valsartan were evaluated with medications commonly used in patients with heart failure including furosemide, warfarin, digoxin, carvedilol, levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol combination, amlodipine, omeprazole, hydrochlorothiazide, intravenous nitrates, metformin, statins, and sildenafil. Co-administration with sacubitril/valsartan increased the maximum plasma concentration (~2.0-fold) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (1.3-fold) of atorvastatin; however, it did not affect the pharmacokinetics of simvastatin. Age, sex, or ethnicity did not affect the pharmacokinetics of sacubitril/valsartan. In patients with heart failure vs. healthy subjects, area under the plasma concentration-time curves of sacubitril, sacubitrilat, and valsartan were higher by approximately 1.6-, 2.1-, and 2.3-fold, respectively. Renal impairment had no significant impact on sacubitril and valsartan area under the plasma concentration-time curves, while the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of sacubitrilat correlated with degree of renal function (1.3-, 2.3-, 2.9-, and 3.3-fold with mild, moderate, and severe renal impairment, and end-stage renal disease, respectively). Moderate hepatic impairment increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curves of valsartan and sacubitrilat ~2.1-fold.

The relationship between natriuretic peptides and neprilysin pathways: the clinical simplification against the complexity of biological systems.

A large body of evidence supports the use of natriuretic peptides (brain natriuretic peptide [BNP] and N-terminal proBNP [NT-proBNP]) for the evaluation and management of patients with heart failure over time. Elevated values reflect an enhanced counterregulatory response to hemodynamic stress and are indicative of heart failure severity, thus predicting prognosis. The clinical relevance and result interpretation of natriuretic peptides for monitoring therapy are still debated, and our understanding of their complex nature is still far from being complete. The new data about the clinical efficacy of LCZ696, a combination neprilysin inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker recently approved for the treatment of symptomatic chronic heart failure, showed a different susceptibility of BNP and NT-proBNP during therapy. The aim of this article is to discuss the controversial issues concerning the clinical use of cardiac natriuretic peptide measurement, the complex relationship with neprilysin pathways, and the practical implications of LCZ696 therapy for natriuretic peptide testing in clinical practice.

Comparative venom gland transcriptomics of Naja kaouthia (monocled cobra) from Malaysia and Thailand: elucidating geographical venom variation and insights into sequence novelty.

The monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia) is a medically important venomous snake in Southeast Asia. Its venom has been shown to vary geographically in relation to venom composition and neurotoxic activity, indicating vast diversity of the toxin genes within the species. To investigate the polygenic trait of the venom and its locale-specific variation, we profiled and compared the venom gland transcriptomes of N. kaouthia from Malaysia (NK-M) and Thailand (NK-T) applying next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology.

Resetting the neurohormonal balance in heart failure (HF): the relevance of the natriuretic peptide (NP) system to the clinical management of patients with HF.

The natriuretic peptide (NP) system, which includes atrial natriuretic peptide, B-type natriuretic peptide, and C-type natriuretic peptide, has an important role in cardiovascular homeostasis, promoting a number of physiological effects including diuresis, vasodilation, and inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Heart failure (HF) is associated with defects in NP processing and synthesis, and there is a strong relationship between NP levels and disease state. NPs are useful biomarkers in HF, and their use in diagnosis and evaluation of prognosis is well established, particularly in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). There has also been interest in their use to guide disease management and therapeutic decision making. An understanding of NPs in HF has also resulted in interest in synthetic NPs for the treatment of HF and in treatments that target neprilysin, a protease that degrades NPs. A novel drug, the angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696), which simultaneously inhibits neprilysin and blocks the angiotensin II type I receptor, was shown to have a favorable efficacy and safety profile in patients with HFrEF and has been approved for use in such patients in Europe and the USA. In light of the development of treatments that target neprilysin and of recent data in relation to synthetic NPs, it is timely to review the current understanding of the role of NPs in HF and their use in diagnosis, evaluating prognosis and guiding treatment, as well as their place in HF therapy.

The renal and cardiovascular effects of natriuretic peptides.

The landmark report by de Bold et al. in 1981 signified the heart as one of the endocrine organs involved in fluid and salt balance (de Bold AJ, Borenstein HB, Veress AT, Sonnenberg H. Life Sci 28: 89-94, 1981). Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) are secreted from cardiomyocytes in response to cardiac stretch as in the case of heart failure, whereas C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is secreted from endothelial and renal cells in response to cytokines and endothelium-dependent agonists, such as acetylcholine. Binding ANP or BNP to natriuretic peptide receptor A induces cyclic guanylyl monophosphate as second messenger in the target cells to mediate the following: natriuresis; water diuresis; increasing glomerular filtration rate; decreasing systemic sympathetic activities; plasma volume; cardiac output and blood pressure; and curbing mitoses of heart fibroblasts and hypertrophy of cardiovascular muscle cells. ANP, BNP, and CNP are cleared from the bloodstream by natriuretic peptide receptor C and degraded by an ectoenzyme called neprilysin (NEP). The plasma levels of BNP are typically >100 pg/ml in patients with congestive heart failure. Sacubitril/valsartan is an angiotensin receptor NEP inhibitor that prevents the clinical progression of surviving patients with heart failure more effectively than enalapril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. A thorough understanding of the renal and cardiovascular effects of natriuretic peptides is of major importance for first-year medical students to gain insight into the significance of plasma levels of BNP in patients with heart failure.

Ivabradine: Current and Future Treatment of Heart Failure.

In heart failure (HF), the heart cannot pump blood efficiently and is therefore unable to meet the body's demands of oxygen, and/or there is increased end diastolic pressure. Current treatments for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) include angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitors, angiotension receptor type 1 (AT1 ) antagonists, β-adrenoceptor-antagonists, aldosterone receptor antagonists, diuretics, digoxin and a combination drug with AT1 receptor antagonist and neprilysin inhibitor. In HF, the risk of readmission for hospital and mortality is markedly higher with a heart rate above than below 70 beats per minute. Here, we review the evidence regarding the use of ivabradine for lowering heart rate in HF. Ivabradine is a blocker of an I funny current (I(f)) channel and causes rate-dependent inhibition of the pacemaker activity in the sinoatrial node. In clinical trials of HFrEF, treatment with ivabradine seems to improve clinical outcomes, e.g. improved ejection fraction and less readmission for hospital, but the effect appears most pronounced in patients with heart rates above 70 beats per minute, while the effect on cardiovascular death appears less consistent. The adverse effects of ivabradine include bradycardia, atrial fibrillation, and visual disturbances, but ivabradine avoids the negative inotrope effects observed with β-adrenoceptor antagonists. In conclusion, in patients with stable HFrEF with EF<35% and heart rate above 70 beats per minute, ivabradine improves the outcome and might be a first choice of therapy, if BAAs are not tolerated. Further studies must show whether that can be extended to HF patients with preserved ejection fraction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Early Adoption of Sacubitril/Valsartan for Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: Insights From Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure (GWTG-HF).

The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and variation in angiotensin receptor/neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) prescription among a real-world population with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF).

Current and emerging pharmacologic options for the management of patients with chronic and acute decompensated heart failure.

For many years heart failure (HF) was known as a fatal disease with an ominous prognosis. In the last decades better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying HF has resulted in major breakthrough in the management and improvement in the natural history of this clinical syndrome. Areas covered: The review is focused on current and upcoming pharmacological therapies in patients with chronic and acute HF, starting with brief overview of drugs which improve the outcomes in patients with chronic HF with reduced ejection fraction (EF) including neurohormonal antagonists, angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor and If- channel inhibitor, then presenting the summary of symptomatic treatment, the pharmacotherapy in chronic HF with preserved and mid-range EF and in acute HF. Finally, we report the emerging pharmacologic options and ongoing clinical trials and future directions in pharmacotherapy. Expert commentary: The guidelines-recommended therapies in HF with reduced EF need to be widely implemented into the everyday clinical practice. Better clinical characterization of HF with preserved, mid-range EF and acute HF, with better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms may ultimately result in a development of effective strategies improving ominous outcomes in these patients.

Paradigm shift from diagnosing patients based on common symptoms to categorizing patients into subtypes with different pathogenic mechanisms to guide treatment for Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major cause of dementia in the elderly, and the number of AD patients is rapidly growing as life expectancy increases. However, disease-modifying drugs are not yet available. According to the amyloid hypothesis, disease onset is triggered by aggregation and accumulation of amyloid-β peptide, followed by formation of neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated tau, and synaptic loss/neuronal cell death leading to dementia. Based on this hypothesis, various clinical trials for treatment of AD have been conducted, but most were discontinued due to failure to achieve cognitive improvement or appearance of adverse effects. Here we discuss the reasons for the failure of these trials. We suggest that biomarkers of specific, distinct molecular mechanisms of amyloidogenesis should be developed concomitantly with disease-modifying drugs (so-called companion diagnosis) to aid the proper design of clinical trials, as well as to enable personalized treatment of individual AD patients.

Efficacy and safety of crystalline valsartan/sacubitril (LCZ696) compared to placebo and combinations of free valsartan and sacubitril in patients with systolic hypertension: the RATIO study.

We compared the systolic blood pressure-lowering efficacy and safety of crystalline valsartan/sacubitril (LCZ696, an angiotensin receptor blocker-neprilysin inhibitor) 400 mg daily against valsartan (320 mg once daily) alone or co-administered with placebo or increasing doses of free sacubitril (50, 100, 200, or 400 mg once daily) in order to identify the optimal antihypertensive combination dose. This multicenter, double-blinded, 7-arm parallel-group study recruited patients with mild-to-moderate systolic hypertension (office systolic BP 150-179 mmHg). Primary dependent variable was change in office systolic BP from baseline to week 8. At entry (n=907), mean age was 61.5 years, sitting office blood pressure (BP) 160/90.2 mmHg, and mean 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure 142/82.1 mmHg; 852 participants completed the study. At week 8, there were greater reductions in sitting office SBP and 24-hour ambulatory systolic BP with LCZ696 400mg than with valsartan 320mg (-5.7 and -3.4 mmHg, respectively, p<0.05 each). The systolic BP reduction with LCZ696 400 daily was similar to co-administered free valsartan 320mg and sacubitril 200mg. Effects were similar in those above and below age 65 and active therapies had adverse event rates similar to placebo. We conclude that crystalline valsartan/sacubitril 400 mg daily: 1) is superior to valsartan 320 mg daily for lowering systolic BP, 2) has similar efficacy to the combination of free valsartan 320 mg plus free sacubitril 200 mg, 3) represents the optimal dosage for systolic hypertension in patients of any age, and 4) is safe and well tolerated.

Systemic administration of sialorphin attenuates experimental colitis in mice via interaction with mu and kappa opioid receptors.

Pharmacological treatment and/or maintenance of remission in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is currently one of the biggest challenges in the field of gastroenterology. Here we aimed to assess the anti-inflammatory effect and the mechanism of action of sialorphin, the natural blocker of the endogenous opioid peptide-degrading enzymes neprilysin (NEP) and aminopeptidase N (APN), in the mouse models of IBD and the changes in the expression of these enzymes in IBD patients.

Hypertension up to date: SPRINT to SPYRAL.

Hypertension is the most common chronic cardiovascular condition with increasing prevalence all over the world. Treatment of patients at risk requires a multimodal therapeutic concept to adjust blood pressure, including systematic identification of secondary causes of hypertension or pseudo-resistance, lifestyle modification, polypharmacy, and as well as accompanying risk factors and comorbidities. The present review discusses recent studies on patients with increased cardiovascular risk potentially influencing future treatment strategies. It covers blood pressure targets in patients at risk (SPRINT), novel treatment options such as angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors, discusses the treatment of patients with impaired glucose tolerance, and appreciates novelties in controlling therapy-resistant hypertension by fourth-line pharmacotherapies (PATHWAY), as well as new interventional approaches.

Effect of sacubitril/valsartan versus enalapril on glycaemic control in patients with heart failure and diabetes: a post-hoc analysis from the PARADIGM-HF trial.

Diabetes is an independent risk factor for heart failure progression. Sacubitril/valsartan, a combination angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor, improves morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), compared with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril, and improves peripheral insulin sensitivity in obese hypertensive patients. We aimed to investigate the effect of sacubitril/valsartan versus enalapril on HbA1c and time to first-time initiation of insulin or oral antihyperglycaemic drugs in patients with diabetes and HFrEF.

Analysis of salivary protease spectrum in chronic periodontitis.

This study aimed to investigate the difference in salivary protease expression in patients with chronic periodontitis and normal individuals.

Neprilysin inhibition in heart failure: mechanisms and substrates beyond modulating natriuretic peptides.

The autonomic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and the natriuretic peptide system represent critical regulatory pathways in heart failure and as such have been the major targets of pharmacological development. The introduction and approval of angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors (ARNi) have broadened the available drug treatments of patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Neprilysin catalyses the degradation of a number of vasodilator peptides, including the natriuretic peptides, bradykinin, substance P, and adrenomedullin, as well as vasoconstrictor peptides, including endothelin-1 and angiotensin I and II. We review the multiple, potentially competing, substrates for neprilysin inhibition, and the resultant composite clinical effects of ARNi therapy. A mechanistic understanding of this novel therapeutic class may provide important insights into the expected on-target and off-target effects when this agent is more widely prescribed.

Degradation paradigm of the Gut Hormone, Pancreatic Polypeptide, by hepatic and renal peptidases.

Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is a gut hormone that acts on Y4 receptors to reduce appetite. Obese humans display a reduced postprandial rise in PP and remain fully sensitive to the anorectic effects of exogenous PP. The utility of PP as an antiobesity treatment is limited by its short circulating half-life. Insight into the mechanisms by which PP is degraded may aid design of long-acting PP analogues.We aimed to investigate the role of peptidases in PP degradation with a view to determining whether inhibition of these enzymes enhanced PP plasma levels and bioactivity in vivo. DPPIV and neprilysin (NEP) were two peptidase found to cleave PP. Limiting the effect of both peptidases improved the in vivo anorectic effect of PP and PP-based analogues. These studies suggest that inhibiting the degradation of PP using specific inhibitors and/or the design of analogues resistant to cleavage by DPPIV and NEP may be useful in the development of PP as an anti-obesity pharmacotherapy.

Angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor treatment is safe and potentially efficacious in end‑stage hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Major developments in the 2016 european guidelines for heart failure.

The European Society of Cardiology has recently published new guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure (HF). This article aims to review these recommendations and their level of scientific evidence and to present the most innovative aspects. The most significant deviations from the 2012 edition are: 1) the introduction of the concept of HF with midrange LVEF (40-49%); 2) a new diagnostic algorithm for chronic HF, initially considering the clinical probability; 3) recommendations on preventing or delaying the apparition of HF; 4) indications for the use of the new sacubitril-valsartan compound, the first angiotensin receptor blocker and neprilysin inhibitor; 5) modification of indications for cardiac resynchronisation therapy; and 6) a new algorithm for a combined diagnostic and treatment strategy for acute HF based on the presence or absence of congestion and hypoperfusion.

The effect of angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor, sacubitril/valsartan, on central nervous system amyloid-β concentrations and clearance in the cynomolgus monkey.

Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) is the first angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor approved to reduce cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. As neprilysin (NEP) is one of several enzymes known to degrade amyloid-β (Aβ), there is a theoretical risk of Aβ accumulation following long-term NEP inhibition. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of sacubitril/valsartan on central nervous system clearance of Aβ isoforms in cynomolgus monkeys using the sensitive Stable Isotope Labeling Kinetics (SILK™)-Aβ methodology. The in vitro selectivity of valsartan, sacubitril, and its active metabolite sacubitrilat was established; sacubitrilat did not inhibit other human Aβ-degrading metalloproteases. In a 2-week study, sacubitril/valsartan (50mg/kg/day) or vehicle was orally administered to female cynomolgus monkeys in conjunction with SILK™-Aβ. Despite low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain penetration, CSF exposure to sacubitril was sufficient to inhibit NEP and resulted in an increase in the elimination half-life of Aβ1-42 (65.3%; p=0.026), Aβ1-40 (35.2%; p=0.04) and Aβtotal (29.8%; p=0.04) acutely; this returned to normal as expected with repeated dosing for 15days. CSF concentrations of newly generated Aβ (AUC(0-24h)) indicated elevations in the more aggregable form Aβ1-42 on day 1 (20.4%; p=0.039) and day 15 (34.7%; p=0.0003) and in shorter forms Aβ1-40 (23.4%; p=0.009), Aβ1-38 (64.1%; p=0.0001) and Aβtotal (50.45%; p=0.00002) on day 15. However, there were no elevations in any Aβ isoforms in the brains of these monkeys on day 16. In a second study cynomolgus monkeys were administered sacubitril/valsartan (300mg/kg) or vehicle control for 39weeks; no microscopic brain changes or Aβ deposition, as assessed by immunohistochemical staining, were present. Further clinical studies are planned to address the relevance of these findings.

The association of MME microRNA Binding Site Polymorphism with risk of late onset Alzheimer's Disease in Northern Han Chinese.

Background Although amyloid β (Aβ) degradation has been normally implicated in the pathogenesis of late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) through cellular biological studies, genetic studies linking Aβ degradation and LOAD are still not deeply investigated. Neprilysin (NEP), as one of the most crucial Aβ-degrading enzymes in AD, is the metalloendopeptidases which particularly participates in the monomeric Aβ species degradation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) exert posttranscriptional dysregulation and their target sequence on the 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR) may be regulated by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Objective To investigate the potential risk of common locus within NEP gene (MME) with LOAD in Northern Han Chinese population. Method We screened a locus (rs6665) in 3' UTR of NEP gene (MME) sequence which was specially regulated by miRNA-187 , and further investigate its possible associations with LOAD onset in a large case-control study (984 LOAD patients and 1354 healthy controls) in Northern Han Chinese. Results The distribution of rs6665 genotype (P=0.003) and allele A/C (P=0.001) showed significant difference between LOAD and controls (Odds Ratio (OR) =1.255, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) =1.102-1.429). After adjusting age, gender and Apolipoprotein (ApoE) ε4 status, the minor C allele of rs6665 acted as the significant risk associated with LOAD in all three genotypic models (Dominant: P=0.003, OR=1.291, 95%CI=1.092-1.526; Recessive: P=0.030, OR =1.425, 95%CI =1.035-1.961; Additive: P=0.001, OR=1.249,95%CI=1.093-1.427). After stratifying by ApoE ε4 status, rs6665 polymorphism was found as the risk in ApoE ε4 carriers in LOAD (P=0.002, OR=1.846, 95%CI=1.264-2.697) was found. Conclusion Our study firstly confirmed the association of MME miRNA binding site polymorphism with risk of LOAD. However, the absolute association of MME with LOAD still requires more investigation.

A Breakthrough in the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: the Clinical Significance of the PARADIGM HF-Trial.

The implementation into clinical practice of new therapeutic strategies that could improve the prognosis of patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) remains relevant. Innovative approach is to restore imbalances of neurohumoral systems by inhibiting angiotensin II receptor and neprilysin. The review presents the role of the natriuretic peptides system in the HFrEF pathophysiology, historical approaches to neurohormonal modulation, clinical pharmacology of the first in the class of angiotensin receptor and neprilysin inhibitor sakubitril/valsartan. The results of the study PARADIGM-HF, in which sakubitril/valsartan therapy in patients with HFrEF compared with the recommended doses of enalapril was associated with the decrease of the of cardiovascular death and hospitalizations for HF by 20%, the risk of death from any cause by 16%, improvement of symptoms and exercise tolerance. Sakubitril/valsartan tolerated better than enalapril, rarely causes a cough, hyperkalemia or renal dysfunction. There was no increase in the risk of angioedema. Based on the results of the study PARADIGM-HF sakubitril/valsartan was included in the national and international guidelines for HF.

Expression of neprilysin in periodontitis-affected gingival tissues.

Although the pathogeneses of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and periodontal diseases have overlapping features, including ageing and chronic inflammation, the association between AD and periodontitis remains unclear. To explore the pathogenesis of periodontitis, a comprehensive gene expression/transcriptome analysis in periodontitis-affected gingival tissues found that the AD pathway was significantly up-regulated in periodontitis-affected gingival tissues. AD-related genes, amyloid beta precursor protein (APP), interleukin-1 beta and compliment 1QA, were significantly elevated in periodontitis. In the present study, balance between mRNA expression of APP and a potent amyloid degradation enzyme, neprilysin (NEP), as well as protein localisation of APP and NEP were analysed.

Sacubitril/Valsartan: The Newest Addition to the Toolbox for Guideline-Directed Medical Therapy of Heart Failure.

Sacubitril/valsartan combines a neprilysin inhibitor with an angiotensin receptor blocker. As an inhibitor of neprilysin, an enzyme that degrades biologically active natriuretic peptides, this first-in-class therapy increases levels of circulating natriuretic peptides, resulting in natriuretic, diuretic, and vasodilatory effects. In patients with chronic New York Heart Association class II-IV heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, the PARADIGM-HF trial demonstrated that sacubitril/valsartan significantly reduced the primary endpoint of cardiovascular mortality and heart failure hospitalization, compared with enalapril. The rate of all-cause mortality was also significantly reduced. Subsequently, the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/Heart Failure Society of America recently updated guideline recommendations for Stage C patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction to recommend angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, or sacubitril/valsartan in conjunction with other evidence-based therapies to reduce morbidity and mortality. Several analyses have suggested the cost-effectiveness of this new therapy. To ensure tolerability, initiating the lower dosage form of sacubitril/valsartan is warranted in patients with severe renal impairment, moderate hepatic impairment, and low blood pressure, and close monitoring is warranted in such patients. A 36-hour washout period is recommended when switching patients from an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor to sacubitril/valsartan. Similarly, sacubitril/valsartan is contraindicated in patients receiving concomitant angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker and those with a history of angioedema.

Humanin Specifically Interacts with Amyloid-β Oligomers and Counteracts Their in vivo Toxicity.

The 24-residue peptide humanin (HN) has been proposed as a peptide-based inhibitor able to interact directly with amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers and interfere with the formation and/or biological properties of toxic Aβ species. When administered exogenously, HN, or its synthetic S14G-derivative (HNG), exerted multiple cytoprotective effects, counteracting the Aβ-induced toxicity. Whether these peptides interact directly with Aβ, particularly with the soluble oligomeric assemblies, remains largely unknown. We here investigated the ability of HN and HNG to interact directly with highly aggregating Aβ42, and interfere with the formation and toxicity of its oligomers. Experiments were run in cell-free conditions and in vivo in a transgenic C. elegans strain in which the Aβ toxicity was specifically due to oligomeric species. Thioflavin-T assay indicated that both HN and HNG delay the formation and reduce the final amount of Aβ42 fibrils. In vitro surface plasmon resonance studies indicated that they interact with Aβ42 oligomers favoring the formation of amorphous larger assemblies, observed with turbidity and electron microscopy. In vivo studies indicated that both HN and HNG decrease the relative abundance of A11-positive prefibrillar oligomers as well as OC-positive fibrillar oligomers and had similar protective effects. However, while HN possibly decreased the oligomers by promoting their assembly into larger aggregates, the reduction of oligomers caused by HNG can be ascribed to a marked decrease of the total Aβ levels, likely the consequence of the HNG-induced overexpression of the Aβ-degrading enzyme neprilysin. These findings provide information on the mechanisms underlying the anti-oligomeric effects of HN and HNG and illustrate the role of S14G substitution in regulating the in vivo mechanism of action.

Indications and Clinical Implications of the Use of the Cardiac Markers BNP and NT-proBNP.

B-type natriuretic peptides are markers of myocardial wall stress. BNP or NT-proBNP are used for the differential diagnosis of acute dyspnoe where normal serum concentrations make a cardiac cause unlikely. New data show their importance for risk prediction in different stages of heart failure and in primary prevention. Natriuretic peptide guided therapy improves titration of heart failure medications. Compared to BNP, NT-proBNP is better suited during therapy with the new angiotensin-rezeptor-neprilysin-inhibitor Sacubitril/Valsartan. This review article summarizes current data on the importance of B-type natriuretic peptides for the interface of ambulatory and hospital care and presents recommendations for their practical use in patient care.

Potential Expanded Indications for Neprilysin Inhibitors.

The goal of this article is to review potential expanded indications for neprilysin inhibitors. This article reviews the rationale and design for ongoing and future trials of sacubitril/valsartan in cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular disease.

Sequential activation of different pathway networks in ischemia-affected and non-affected myocardium, inducing intrinsic remote conditioning to prevent left ventricular remodeling.

We have analyzed the pathway networks of ischemia-affected and remote myocardial areas after repetitive ischemia/reperfusion (r-I/R) injury without ensuing myocardial infarction (MI) to elaborate a spatial- and chronologic model of cardioprotective gene networks to prevent left ventricular (LV) adverse remodeling. Domestic pigs underwent three cycles of 10/10 min r-I/R by percutaneous intracoronary balloon inflation/deflation in the mid left anterior descending artery, without consecutive MI. Sham interventions (n = 8) served as controls. Hearts were explanted at 5 h (n = 6) and 24 h (n = 6), and transcriptomic profiling of the distal (ischemia-affected) and proximal (non-affected) anterior myocardial regions were analyzed by next generation sequencing (NGS) and post-processing with signaling pathway impact and pathway network analyses. In ischemic region, r-I/R induced early activation of Ca-, adipocytokine and insulin signaling pathways with key regulator STAT3, which was also upregulated in the remote areas together with clusterin (CLU) and TNF-alpha. During the late phase of cardioprotection, antigen immunomodulatory pathways were activated with upregulation of STAT1 and CASP3 and downregulation of neprilysin in both zones, suggesting r-I/R induced intrinsic remote conditioning. The temporo-spatially differently activated pathways revealed a global myocardial response, and neprilysin and the STAT family as key regulators of intrinsic remote conditioning for prevention of adverse remodeling.

Neprilysin Is Suppressed by Dual-Specificity Tyrosine-Phosphorylation Regulated Kinase 1A (DYRK1A) in Down-Syndrome-Derived Fibroblasts.

Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) accumulation is a triggering event leading to the Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathological cascade. Almost all familial AD-linked gene mutations increase Aβ production and accelerate the onset of AD. The Swedish mutation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) affects β-secretase activity and increases Aβ production up to ca. 6-fold in cultured cells; the onset age is around 50. Down syndrome (DS) patients with chromosome 21 trisomy present AD-like pathologies at earlier ages (40s) compared with sporadic AD patients, because APP gene expression is 1.5-fold higher than that in healthy people, thus causing a 1.5-fold increase in Aβ production. However, when comparing the causal relationship of Aβ accumulation with the onset age between the above two populations, early DS pathogenesis does not appear to be accounted for by the increased Aβ production alone. In this study, we found that neprilysin, a major Aβ-degrading enzyme, was downregulated in DS patient-derived fibroblasts, compared with healthy people-derived fibroblasts. Treatment with harmine, an inhibitor of dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A), which is located in the DS critical region of chromosome 21, and gene knockdown of DYRK1A, upregulated neprilysin in fibroblasts. These results suggest that a decrease in the Aβ catabolic rate may be, at least in part, one of the causes for accelerated AD-like pathogenesis in DS patients if a similar event occurs in the brains, and that neprilysin activity may be regulated directly or indirectly by DYRK1A-mediated phosphorylation. DYRK1A inhibition may be a promising disease-modifying therapy for AD via neprilysin upregulation.

Is there a place for a dual angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor in the treatment of hypertension?