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DEXA - Top 30 Publications

Comparison of Muscle Mass Indices Using Computed Tomography or Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry for Predicting Physical Performance in Hemodialysis Patients.

Our study aims to evaluate the association between thigh muscle cross-sectional area (TMA) using computed tomography (CT), or appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and physical performance levels in hemodialysis (HD) patients.

Impaired Lipolysis, Diminished Fat Oxidation and Metabolic Inflexibility in Obese Girls with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Metabolic flexibility reflects the ability to switch from lipid to carbohydrate oxidation during insulin stimulation manifested in increased respiratory quotient (RQ). Despite insulin resistance in glucose metabolism in PCOS women and adolescents, little is known about adipose tissue metabolism and metabolic flexibility.

Naringin prevents bone loss in a rat model of type 1 Diabetes mellitus.

The aim of this work was to know whether naringin (NA) could prevent the bone complications in a model of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes. Rats were divided in: 1) controls, 2) STZ-rats, 3) STZ-rats treated with 40 mg NA/kg, and 4) STZ-rats treated with 80 mg NA/kg. BMD and BMC were performed by DEXA. Bone histomorphometry and histology as well as TRAP staining were done in tibia. Osteocalcin (OCN) was determined in bone and serum. Glutathione content and SOD and catalase activities were assayed in bone marrow from femur. The data showed that NA80 increased the BMD and BMC from the long bones of STZ-rats. Both NA40 and NA80 normalized the trabecular number and the trabecular separations. An increase in the number of adipocytes and TRAP(+) cells in tibia from STZ-rats was blocked by NA. NA40 treatment increased the number of OCN(+) cells, but only the NA80 treatment allowed to reach the control values. NA normalized the SOD and catalase activities in bone marrow of femur from STZ-rats. In conclusion, NA avoids alterations in the physical properties and microstructure of bone from STZ-rats probably by stimulation of osteoblastogenesis, inhibition of the osteoclastogenesis and adipogenesis via blocking the oxidative stress.

Lumbar Scoliosis in Patients With Breast Cancer: Prevalence and Relationship With Breast Cancer Treatment, Age, Bone Mineral Density, and Body Mass Index.

To identify the prevalence of lumbar scoliosis in breast cancer patients and to investigate the potential risk factors of lumbar scoliosis.

Phase-contrast imaging for body composition measurement.

In this paper, we propose a novel method for human body composition measurement, especially for the bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. The proposed method, using the absorption and differential phase information retrieved from X-ray grating-based interferometer (XGBI) to measure the BMD, has potential to replace dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), which is currently widely used for body composition measurement.

Lumbar computed tomography scans are not appropriate surrogates for bone mineral density scans in primary adult spinal deformity.

OBJECTIVE The authors examined the correlation between lumbar spine CT Hounsfield unit (HU) measurements and bone mineral density measurements in an adult spinal deformity (ASD) population. METHODS Patients with ASD were identified in the records of a single institution. Lumbar CT scans were reviewed, and the mean HU measurements from L1-4 were recorded. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed using femoral neck and lumbar spine dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The number of patients who met criteria for osteoporosis was determined for each imaging modality. RESULTS Forty-eight patients underwent both preoperative DEXA and CT scanning. Forty-three patients were female and 5 were male. Forty-seven patients were Caucasian and one was African American. The mean age of the patients was 62.1 years. Femoral neck DEXA was more likely to identify osteopenia (n = 26) than lumbar spine DEXA (n = 8) or lumbar CT HU measurements (n = 6) (p < 0.001). There was a low-moderate correlation between lumbar spine CT and lumbar spine DEXA (r = 0.463, p < 0.001), and there was poor correlation between lumbar spine CT and femoral neck DEXA (r = 0.303, p = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS Despite the opportunistic utility of lumbar spine CT HU measurements in identifying osteoporosis in patients undergoing single-level fusion, these measurements were not useful in this cohort of ASD patients. The correlation between femoral neck DEXA and HU measurements was poor. DEXA assessment of BMD in ASD patients is essential to optimize the care of these complicated cases.

Effects of serum 25-hydroxyvitaminD level on decreased bone mineral density at femoral neck and total hip in Chinese type 2 diabetes.

The aims of this study is to observe the levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitaminD (25OHD), parathyroid hormone and bone mineral density (BMD) in type 2 diabetes as well as to analyze the correlationship between 25OHD level and BMD.

Efficacy of radiographic density values of the first and second cervical vertebrae recorded by CBCT technique to identify patients with osteoporosis and osteopenia.

Background. Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by a decrease in bone strength with an increase in the risk of fractures. This study aimed at evaluating the ability to predict osteoporosis and osteopenia based on radiographic density values obtained from CBCT imaging technique. Methods. CBCT images of 108 patients were prepared by using NewTom VGI (QR, Verona, Italy). Then the patients were assigned to osteoporosis, osteopenia and healthy group, using the T-score derived from the DEXA technique. Finally, RD of the lateral mass of C1 on the left and right sides and body and dens of the C2 were measured. RD values were compared between the three groups by one-way ANOVA, followed by an appropriate post hoc test. Results. The results of the comparisons of RD values at the first and second cervical vertebrae in the three groups showed that all the values had statistically significant differences (P<0.05). The most precise diagnosis of osteoporosis was related to the RD values of the body of C2 and left lateral mass of C1 that was equal to 99% and their cut-off points were 375 and 386, respectively. Conclusion. Based on the findings of this study, it is possible to predict the osteoporosis status of the patient through the RD related to the body of C2 and the left lateral mass of C1 more accurately than the other areas.

Circulating Irisin Is Reduced in Male Patients with Type 1 and Type 2 Myotonic Dystrophies.

Myotonic dystrophies (DM) are dominantly inherited muscle disorders characterized by myotonia, muscle weakness, and wasting. The reasons for sarcopenia in DMs are uncleared and multiple factors are involved. Irisin, a positive hormone regulator of muscle growth and bone, may play a role.

Irisin levels correlate with bone mineral density in soccer players.

Irisin, a novel myokine produced in response to physical exercise by skeletal muscle, displays anabolic effect on bone and can improve the bone-loss-induced osteoporosis in hind limb suspended mice. It is well known that muscles positively impact the skeleton and in different sports, including soccer, total body bone mineral density (TB-BMD) is elevated. Therefore, we have investigated the correlation between irisin serum levels and total and bone sub-regional BMD in soccer players never studied before. In this study, Caucasian football players of Bari team have been enrolled. Their sera were collected to measure by ELISA kit irisin levels and by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) analysis measurements of BMD (g • cm−2) in the whole body and different bone sub-regions (head, arms, legs, ribs, dorsal vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae, pelvis) were performed. The BMC (g) was measured in the whole body. By means of Pearson’s (R) and Cohen’s (d) coefficient we investigated the linear association between the irisin serum levels and BMD. In soccer players, we have found a positive correlation between irisin and TB-BMD as demonstrated by the values of Pearson and Cohen’s (d) coefficient. Furthermore, linear association was detected between irisin and BMD of different bone-site such as right arm, lumbar vertebrae and head. A positive trend was also observed analyzing circulating levels of irisin and bone mineral content as well as total Z-score. In conclusion, we have demonstrated the correlation between irisin and total or bone sub-regional BMD in soccer players for the first time, an additional systemic effect of the “sport-hormone” defined myokine.

Visceral Fat Dysfunctions in the Rat Social Isolation Model of Psychosis.

Medication with neuroleptics has been associated with adipose tissue dysfunctions and, in particular, with increased visceral fat amount. However, several studies suggested that antipsychotic treatment might not be the main responsible of fat mass accumulation, as this has been also described in not treated psychotic patients. One of the most used "drug-free" rodent models of psychosis is the social isolation rearing of young adult rats, which provides a non-pharmacologic method of inducing long-term alterations reminiscent of symptoms seen in psychotic patients. Recent data highlighted a crucial role of redox imbalance in adipose tissue dysfunctions, in terms of decreased antioxidant defense and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we investigated possible oxidative stress-related biomolecular alterations associated with visceral fat increase in 7 week isolated rats. To this purpose, we quantified total and visceral fat amount by using dual-energy X-ray (DEXA) absorptiometry. On visceral fat, we analyzed the expression of specific ROS-producer genes (Nox1, Nox4, Hmox-1), antioxidant enzymes (Prdx1 and Ucp-1) and oxidative stress-induced damage markers (Cidea, Slc2a4, and Acacb). The impact of oxidative stress on beta3-adrenergic receptors (Adrb3), at both mRNA and protein level, was also assessed. We found that 7 weeks of social isolation induced an increase in total and visceral fat, associated with a decrease in Prdx1 (mRNA and protein) as well as Ucp-1 mRNA levels and an enhanced expression of Nox1 (mRNA and protein) and Hmox-1 mRNA. No differences were detected in Nox4 mRNA levels between grouped and isolated animals. Elevations in Cidea, Slc2a4, and Acacb expression in visceral fat of isolated animals accounted for oxidative stress-related damage in this tissue, further associated with a significant increase in Adrb3 mRNA and protein. Our results provide a novel understanding of the pathological link existing among psychosocial stress-induced psychosis, adipose tissue dysfunctions and redox imbalance, opening new therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of alterations in peripheral tissues associated with this mental disorder.


To identify a low-cost abdominal adiposity index that has a higher accuracy in predicting excess weight in children aged four to seven years old.

Regulating Immunogenicity and Tolerogenicity of Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells through Modulation of Cell Surface Glycosylation by Dexamethasone Treatment.

Dendritic cellular therapies and dendritic cell vaccines show promise for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, the prolongation of graft survival in transplantation, and in educating the immune system to fight cancers. Cell surface glycosylation plays a crucial role in the cell-cell interaction, uptake of antigens, migration, and homing of DCs. Glycosylation is known to change with environment and the functional state of DCs. Tolerogenic DCs (tDCs) are commonly generated using corticosteroids including dexamethasone, however, to date, little is known on how corticosteroid treatment alters glycosylation and what functional consequences this may have. Here, we present a comprehensive profile of rat bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, examining their cell surface glycosylation profile before and after Dexa treatment as resolved by both lectin microarrays and lectin-coupled flow cytometry. We further examine the functional consequences of altering cell surface glycosylation on immunogenicity and tolerogenicity of DCs. Dexa treatment of rat DCs leads to profoundly reduced expression of markers of immunogenicity (MHC I/II, CD80, CD86) and pro-inflammatory molecules (IL-6, IL-12p40, inducible nitric oxide synthase) indicating a tolerogenic phenotype. Moreover, by comprehensive lectin microarray profiling and flow cytometry analysis, we show that sialic acid (Sia) is significantly upregulated on tDCs after Dexa treatment, and that this may play a vital role in the therapeutic attributes of these cells. Interestingly, removal of Sia by neuraminidase treatment increases the immunogenicity of immature DCs and also leads to increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines while tDCs are moderately protected from this increase in immunogenicity. These findings may have important implications in strategies aimed at increasing tolerogenicity where it is advantageous to reduce immune activation over prolonged periods. These findings are also relevant in therapeutic strategies aimed at increasing the immunogenicity of cells, for example, in the context of tumor specific immunotherapies.

Body fat redistribution and changes in lipid and glucose metabolism in people living with HIV/AIDS.

The HIV lipodystrophy syndrome is characterized by changes in metabolism, and body composition that increase cardiovascular risk of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) using highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

Translational evidence of prothrombotic and inflammatory endothelial damage in Cushing Syndrome after remission.

Sustained evidence from observational studies indicates that after remission of Cushing Syndrome (CS) a cardiovascular risk phenotype persists. Here we performed a translational study in active CS and CS in remission to evaluate the subclinical cardiometabolic burden and to explore the direct proinflammatory and prothrombotic potential of their sera on the endothelium in an in vitro translational atherothrombotic cell model.

Spontaneous osteoclastogenesis: Hypothesis for gender-unrelated osteoporosis screening and diagnosis.

Women are at greater risk of developing osteoporosis (OP). However, in the past few years it has become more widely recognized that OP is a significant problem also in men although OP is frequently under-diagnosed and, consequently, under treated in men. Most guidelines, screening and fracture risk evaluation methods as well as pharmacologic agents have been developed for women and then adapted to men. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) measurement by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) is reported as T score and the capability of DEXA to diagnose OP and predict fracture risk is still debated. In addition, the use of female T score references for the diagnosis of OP in men is incorrect for the following reasons: 1) DXA definition was developed just for Caucasian women, 2) men and women display structural differences in terms of bone growth, catabolism and size; 3) aging men have more periosteal apposition, less cortical porosity and endocortical resorption than aging women; and 4) T scores results, both in man and in women, can be affected by the presence of co-morbidities and it is known that in men OP is often secondary. From a biological point of view, OP is mainly due to increased osteoclastic activity leading to an imbalance in bone remodeling that favors resorption. However, some evidence suggests a more complex identity for osteoclasts (OCs) over and above their simple role of 'bone eaters'. In our laboratory, we observed spontaneous OCs formation in vitro in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from OP patients (n.12 female patients and n.6 male patients; DXA T score-2.5 or less). Some researchers demonstrated OCs gender differences in bone resorption activity of female-derived versus male-derived OCs. Indeed, further data from our laboratory also showed gender differences in number of spontaneously differentiated OCs and differentiation time. Therefore, we hypothesized that it would be possible to perform OP screening and diagnosis observing and measuring PBMCs different ability to differentiate spontaneously into OCs in male and female patients. If this hypothesis will be confirmed, it will result in an effective and efficient strategy for OP screening, diagnosis, monitoring and fracture prevention, targeting health service resources on selected patients. However, our hypothesis must be tested in a properly designed clinical trial and several key issues still need to be addressed.

Physical activity and calorie intake mediate the relationship from depression to body fat mass among female Mexican health workers.

Depression is a foremost cause of morbidity throughout the world and the prevalence of depression in women is about twice as high as men. Additionally, overweight and obesity are major global health concerns. We explored the relationship between depression and body fat, and the role of physical activity and diet as mediators of this relationship in a sample of 456 adult female Mexican health workers.

Extracellular polysaccharides purified from Aureobasidium pullulans SM‑2001 (Polycan) inhibit dexamethasone‑induced muscle atrophy in mice.

The present study assessed the beneficial skeletal muscle‑preserving effects of extracellular polysaccharides from Aureobasidium pullulans SM‑2001 (Polycan) (EAP) on dexamethasone (DEXA)‑induced catabolic muscle atrophy in mice. To investigate whether EAP prevented catabolic DEXA‑induced muscle atrophy, and to examine its mechanisms of action, EAP (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) was administered orally, once a day for 24 days. EAP treatment was initiated 2 weeks prior to DEXA treatment (1 mg/kg, once a day for 10 days) in mice. Body weight alterations, serum biochemistry, calf thickness, calf muscle strength, gastrocnemius muscle thickness and weight, gastrocnemius muscle antioxidant defense parameters, gastrocnemius muscle mRNA expression, histology and histomorphometry were subsequently assessed. After 24 days, DEXA control mice exhibited muscle atrophy according to all criteria indices. However, these muscle atrophy symptoms were significantly inhibited by oral treatment with all three doses of EAP. Regarding possible mechanisms of action, EAP exhibited favorable ameliorating effects on DEXA‑induced catabolic muscle atrophy via antioxidant and anti‑inflammatory effects; these effects were mediated by modulation of the expression of genes involved in muscle protein synthesis (AKT serine/threonine kinase 1, phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase, adenosine A1 receptor and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4) and degradation (atrogin‑1, muscle RING‑finger protein‑1, myostatin and sirtuin 1). Therefore, these results indicated that EAP may be helpful in improving muscle atrophies of various etiologies. EAP at 400 mg/kg exhibited favorable muscle protective effects against DEXA‑induced catabolic muscle atrophy, comparable with the effects of oxymetholone (50 mg/kg), which has been used to treat various muscle disorders.

Neuropeptide Y Y2 antagonist treated ovariectomized mice exhibit greater bone mineral density.

Osteoporosis, a disease characterized by progressive bone loss and increased risk of fracture, often results from menopausal loss of estrogen in women. Neuropeptide Y has been shown to negatively regulate bone formation, with amygdala specific deletion of the Y2 receptor resulting in increased bone mass in mice. In this study, ovariectomized (OVX) mice were injected once daily with JNJ-31020028, a brain penetrant Y2 receptor small molecule antagonist to determine the effects on bone formation. Antagonist treated mice had reduced weight and showed increased whole-body bone mineral density compared to vehicle-injected mice. Micro computerized tomography (micro-CT) demonstrated increased vertebral trabecular bone volume, connectivity density and trabecular thickness. Femoral micro-CT analysis revealed increased bone volume within trabecular regions and greater trabecular number, without significant difference in other parameters or within cortical regions. A decrease was seen in serum P1NP, a measure used to confirm positive treatment outcomes in bisphosphonate treated patients. C-terminal telopeptide 1 (CTX-1), a blood biomarker of bone resorption, was decreased in treated animals. The higher bone mineral density observed following Y2 antagonist treatment, as determined by whole-body DEXA scanning, is indicative of either enhanced mineralization or reduced bone loss. Additionally, our findings that ex vivo treatment of bone marrow cells with the Y2 antagonist did not affect osteoblast and osteoclast formation suggests the inhibitor is not affecting these cells directly, and suggests a central role for compound action in this system. Our results support the involvement of Y2R signalling in bone metabolism and give credence to the hypothesis that selective pharmacological manipulation of Y2R may provide anabolic benefits for treating osteoporosis.

Graft subsidence as a predictor of revision surgery following stand-alone lateral lumbar interbody fusion.

OBJECTIVE Lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a less invasive surgical option commonly used for a variety of spinal conditions, including in high-risk patient populations. LLIF is often performed as a stand-alone procedure, and may be complicated by graft subsidence, the clinical ramifications of which remain unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize further the sequelae of graft subsidence following stand-alone LLIF. METHODS A retrospective review of prospectively collected data was conducted on consecutive patients who underwent stand-alone LLIF between July 2008 and June 2015; 297 patients (623 levels) met inclusion criteria. Imaging studies were examined to grade graft subsidence according to Marchi criteria, and compared between those who required revision surgery and those who did not. Additional variables recorded included levels fused, DEXA (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) T-score, body mass index, and routine demographic information. The data were analyzed using the Student t-test, chi-square analysis, and logistic regression analysis to identify potential confounding factors. RESULTS Of 297 patients, 34 (11.4%) had radiographic evidence of subsidence and 18 (6.1%) required revision surgery. The median subsidence grade for patients requiring revision surgery was 2.5, compared with 1 for those who did not. Chi-square analysis revealed a significantly higher incidence of revision surgery in patients with high-grade subsidence compared with those with low-grade subsidence. Seven of 18 patients (38.9%) requiring revision surgery suffered a vertebral body fracture. High-grade subsidence was a significant predictor of the need for revision surgery (p < 0.05; OR 12, 95% CI 1.29-13.6), whereas age, body mass index, T-score, and number of levels fused were not. This relationship remained significant despite adjustment for the other variables (OR 14.4; 95% CI 1.30-15.9). CONCLUSIONS In this series, more than half of the patients who developed graft subsidence following stand-alone LLIF required revision surgery. When evaluating patients for LLIF, supplemental instrumentation should be considered during the index surgery in patients with a significant risk of graft subsidence.

Female urinary incontinence and obesity assessed by anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: Analysis from the 2008-09 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

In the present study we evaluated the association between obesity, assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and urinary incontinence (UI).

Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy improves body composition and alleviates insulin resistance in obesity related acanthosis nigricans.

Acanthosis nigricans (AN) has a close relationship with obesity. It is believed that obesity and AN have the common pathophysiological basis such as hyperinsulinism. This study is aimed to observe the effect of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on body composition and insulin resistance in Chinese obese patients with acanthosis nigricans.

25OH vitamin D levels in pediatric patients affected by Prader-Willi syndrome.

Obesity, insulin resistance, and puberty seem to influence and been inversely associated with 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) levels. To our knowledge, a study on 25OHD in children and adolescents with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a genetic form of obesity, is not yet available.

Ghrelin therapy improves lung and cardiovascular function in experimental emphysema.

Emphysema is a progressive disease characterized by irreversible airspace enlargement followed by a decline in lung function. It also causes extrapulmonary effects, such as loss of body mass and cor pulmonale, which are associated with shorter survival and worse clinical outcomes. Ghrelin, a growth-hormone secretagogue, stimulates muscle anabolism, has anti-inflammatory effects, promotes vasodilation, and improves cardiac performance. Therefore, we hypothesized that ghrelin might reduce lung inflammation and remodelling as well as improve lung mechanics and cardiac function in experimental emphysema.

Relationships between cognitive function and body composition among community-dwelling older adults: a cross-sectional study.

Previous studies reported mixed results regarding the association between cognition and body weight in late life. We evaluated the relationships between cognitive function and body composition among community-dwelling older adults.

Pituitary insufficiency following traumatic thoracic injury in an adolescent male patient: A case report and literature review.

Traumatic thoracic injuries in adolescents are rare but could be connected with traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and development of chronic hypopituitarism. Early recognition of these endocrine problems is a significant challenge to clinicians. We present difficulties in diagnosis of hypothalamic-pituitary insufficiency following traumatic thoracic injury in adolescence. We also review the literature of similar cases.

The impact of the metabolic syndrome on bone mass density: a prospective case control study.

Background Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) during the perimenopausal period and in menopause have been linked to altered bone mass density (BMD) in various experimental studies. However, current clinical studies provide conflicting results in this field. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate this association. Materials and methods We conducted a prospective case control study that was based on a consecutive series of menopausal women who attended the Reproductive Endocrinology Outpatient Clinic of our hospital between January 2013 and December 2016. Results One hundred and forty post-menopausal women were included in the present study. After stratifying the women in two groups according to the presence of MetS we observed that bone turnover markers remained unaffected by the presence of MetS (p > 0.05). On the other hand, both the T- and Z-scores of women with MetS were significantly higher compared to healthly postmenopausal women [T-score: 0.4 (-0.7 to 1.3) vs. -1 (-1.62 to -0.1), p < 0.001] [Z-score: 0.55 (-0.3 to 1.7) vs. -0.4 (-1.1 to 0.4), p = 0.003]. Conclusions According to the findings of our study the presence of MetS during the perimenopausal years seems to have a mild benefit on bone mass density. The pathophysiology that underlies this effect remains unclear as bone turnover markers seem to be unaffected by MetS.

Lyplal1 is dispensable for normal fat deposition in mice.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have detected association between variants in or near the Lysophospholipase-like 1 (LYPLAL1) locus and metabolic traits, including central obesity, fatty liver and waist-hip ratio. LYPLAL1 is also known to be upregulated in the adipose tissue of obese patients. However, the physiological role of LYPLAL1 is not understood. To investigate the function of Lyplal1 in vivo we investigated the phenotype of the Lyplal1tm1a(KOMP)Wtsi homozygous mouse. Body composition was unaltered in Lyplal1 knockout mice as assessed by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning, both on normal chow and on a high fat diet. Adipose tissue distribution between visceral and subcutaneous fat depots was unaltered, with no change in adipocyte cell size. Response to both insulin and glucose dosing was normal in Lyplal1tm1a(KOMP)Wtsi homozygous mice, with normal fasting blood glucose concentrations. RNAseq analysis of liver, muscle and adipose tissue confirmed that Lyplal1 expression was ablated with minimal additional changes in gene expression. These results suggest that Lyplal1 is dispensable for normal mouse metabolic physiology and that despite having been maintained through evolution Lyplal1 is not an essential gene, suggesting possible functional redundancy. Further studies will be required to clarify its physiological role.

Pregnancy-related osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures in two patients treated with low-molecular-weight heparin during pregnancy: case reports.

Pregnancy-related osteoporosis (PRO) is an uncommon metabolic bone disease that can result in vertebral fragility fractures. Here we report two cases of young women who had been previously treated with LMWH-enoxaparin and were diagnosed with PRO with vertebral fragility fractures after delivery. In first case report, a 33-year-old primigravid woman who was treated with 40 mg/day of enoxaparin for eight months to prevent venous thromboembolism was presented. After delivery, Dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DEXA) revealed osteoporosis in lumbar and femoral neck region. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), T4-T7 thoracic vertebral height losses were detected. In second case report, a 28-year-old primigravid woman which was treated with 40 mg/day enoxparin from the second month to the birth was presented. Osteoporosis in lumbar region was detected by DEXA. MRI revealed T12-L1 and L5 vertebral height losses. In conclusion, PRO can cause severe low back pain and should be considered in differential diagnosis. A detailed medical history should be essential to detect relationship between LMWH and PRO.

Investigating the level of agreement of two positioning protocols when using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in the assessment of body composition.

Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a commonly used instrument for analysing segmental body composition (BC). The information from the scan guides the clinician in the treatment of conditions such as obesity and can be used to monitor recovery of lean mass following injury. Two commonly used DXA positioning protocols have been identified-the Nana positioning protocol and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Both protocols have been shown to be reliable. However, only one study has assessed the level of agreement between the protocols and ascertained the participants' preference of protocol based upon comfort. Given the paucity of research in the field and the growing use of DXA in both healthy and pathological populations further research determining the most appropriate positioning protocol is warranted. Therefore, the aims of this study were to assess the level of agreement between results from the NHANES protocol and Nana protocol, and the participants' preference of protocol based on comfort.