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Nicole Lindsey - Top 30 Publications

Ability to serologically confirm recent Zika virus infection in areas with varying past incidence of dengue virus infection - United States and territories, 2016.

Background. Cross-reactivity within flavivirus antibody assays, produced by shared epitopes in the envelope proteins, can complicate serological diagnosis of Zika virus (ZIKAV) infection. We assessed the utility of the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to confirm recent ZIKAV infections and rule out misleading positive IgM results in areas with varying past dengue virus (DENV) infection incidence. Methods. We reviewed PRNT results of sera collected for diagnosis of ZIKAV infection from January 1 through August 31, 2016 with positive ZIKAV IgM results and ZIKAV and DENV PRNT performed. PRNT result interpretations included ZIKAV, unspecified flavivirus, DENV infection, or negative. For this analysis, ZIKAV IgM was considered false-positive for samples interpreted as DENV infection or negative. Results. In US states, 208 (27%) of 759 IgM positives were confirmed as ZIKAV, compared to 11 (21%) of 52 in the US Virgin Islands (USVI), 15 (15%) of 103 in American Samoa, and 13 (11%) of 123 in Puerto Rico. In American Samoa and Puerto Rico, more than 80% of IgM positives were unspecified flavivirus infections. The false-positivity rate was 27% in US states, 18% in USVI, 2% in American Samoa, and 6% in Puerto Rico. Conclusions. In US states, PRNT provided a virus-specific diagnosis or ruled out infection in the majority of IgM positive samples. Almost a third of ZIKAV IgM positive results did not confirm; therefore, providers and patients must understand that IgM results are preliminary. In territories with historically higher DENV transmission, PRNT usually could not differentiate between ZIKAV and DENV infections.

Updated estimation of the impact of a Japanese encephalitis immunization program with live, attenuated SA 14-14-2 vaccine in Nepal.

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne disease that is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in many Asian countries. The objective of this study was to describe the impact of the JE immunization program using SA 14-14-2 JE vaccine implemented in Nepal during 2006 through 2011. A previous assessment after the initial program implementation phase described a significantly lower post-campaign JE incidence compared to expected incidence; however, the previous evaluation had limited post-campaign data for some districts.

West Nile Virus and Other Nationally Notifiable Arboviral Diseases - United States, 2015.

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. The leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the United States is West Nile virus (WNV) (1). Other arboviruses, including La Crosse, St. Louis encephalitis, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, and eastern equine encephalitis viruses, also cause sporadic cases and outbreaks. This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC in 2015 for nationally notifiable arboviruses. It excludes dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses, which are primarily nondomestic viruses typically acquired through travel (and are addressed in other CDC reports). In 2015, 45 states and the District of Columbia (DC) reported 2,282 cases of domestic arboviral disease. Among these cases, 2,175 (95%) were WNV disease and 1,455 (67%) of those were classified as neuroinvasive disease (meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis). The national incidence of WNV neuroinvasive disease was 0.45 cases per 100,000 population. Because arboviral diseases continue to cause serious illness, maintaining surveillance is important to direct prevention activities such as reduction of vector populations and screening of blood donors.

Characteristics of Children Aged <18 Years with Zika Virus Disease Acquired Postnatally - U.S. States, January 2015-July 2016.

Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that typically causes an asymptomatic infection or mild illness, although infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other serious brain abnormalities. Guillain-Barré syndrome and other neurologic complications can occur in adults after Zika virus infection. However, there are few published reports describing postnatally acquired Zika virus disease among children. During January 2015-July 2016, a total of 158 cases of confirmed or probable postnatally acquired Zika virus disease among children aged <18 years were reported to CDC from U.S. states. The median age was 14 years (range = 1 month-17 years), and 88 (56%) were female. Two (1%) patients were hospitalized; none developed Guillain-Barré syndrome, and none died. All reported cases were travel-associated. Overall, 129 (82%) children had rash, 87 (55%) had fever, 45 (29%) had conjunctivitis, and 44 (28%) had arthralgia. Health care providers should consider a diagnosis of Zika virus disease in children who have an epidemiologic risk factor and clinically compatible illness, and should report cases to their state or local health department.

Zika Virus Disease Cases - 50 States and the District of Columbia, January 1-July 31, 2016.

Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus primarily transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (1). Zika virus infections have also been documented through intrauterine transmission resulting in congenital infection; intrapartum transmission from a viremic mother to her newborn; sexual transmission; blood transfusion; and laboratory exposure (1-5). Most Zika virus infections are asymptomatic (1,6). Clinical illness, when it occurs, is generally mild and characterized by acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or nonpurulent conjunctivitis. However, Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause adverse outcomes such as fetal loss, and microcephaly and other serious brain anomalies (1-3). Guillain-Barré syndrome, a rare autoimmune condition affecting the peripheral nervous system, also has been associated with Zika virus infection (1). Following the identification of local transmission of Zika virus in Brazil in May 2015, the virus has continued to spread throughout the Region of the Americas, and travel-associated cases have increased (7). In 2016, Zika virus disease and congenital infections became nationally notifiable conditions in the United States (8). As of September 3, 2016, a total of 2,382 confirmed and probable cases of Zika virus disease with symptom onset during January 1-July 31, 2016, had been reported from 48 of 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. Most cases (2,354; 99%) were travel-associated, with either direct travel or an epidemiologic link to a traveler to a Zika virus-affected area. Twenty-eight (1%) cases were reported as locally acquired, including 26 associated with mosquito-borne transmission, one acquired in a laboratory, and one with an unknown mode of transmission. Zika virus disease should be considered in patients with compatible clinical signs or symptoms who traveled to or reside in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission or who had unprotected sex with someone who traveled to those areas. Health care providers should continue to educate patients, especially pregnant women, about the importance of avoiding infection with Zika virus, and all pregnant women should be assessed for possible Zika virus exposure at each prenatal visit (2).

Adverse event reports following yellow fever vaccination, 2007-13.

Yellow fever (YF) vaccines have been available since the 1930s and are generally considered safe and effective. However, rare reports of serious adverse events (SAE) following vaccination have prompted the Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices to periodically expand the list of conditions considered contraindications and precautions to vaccination.

Zika Virus Infection Among U.S. Pregnant Travelers - August 2015-February 2016.

After reports of microcephaly and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in infants of mothers infected with Zika virus during pregnancy, CDC issued a travel alert on January 15, 2016, advising pregnant women to consider postponing travel to areas with active transmission of Zika virus. On January 19, CDC released interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with travel to an affected area, and an update was released on February 5. As of February 17, CDC had received reports of nine pregnant travelers with laboratory-confirmed Zika virus disease; 10 additional reports of Zika virus disease among pregnant women are currently under investigation. No Zika virus-related hospitalizations or deaths among pregnant women were reported. Pregnancy outcomes among the nine confirmed cases included two early pregnancy losses, two elective terminations, and three live births (two apparently healthy infants and one infant with severe microcephaly); two pregnancies (approximately 18 weeks' and 34 weeks' gestation) are continuing without known complications. Confirmed cases of Zika virus infection were reported among women who had traveled to one or more of the following nine areas with ongoing local transmission of Zika virus: American Samoa, Brazil, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Samoa. This report summarizes findings from the nine women with confirmed Zika virus infection during pregnancy, including case reports for four women with various clinical outcomes. U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure during pregnancy should follow CDC guidelines for patient evaluation and management. Zika virus disease is a nationally notifiable condition. CDC has developed a voluntary registry to collect information about U.S. pregnant women with confirmed Zika virus infection and their infants. Information about the registry is in preparation and will be available on the CDC website.

West Nile Virus and Other Nationally Notifiable Arboviral Diseases - United States, 2014.

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the United States (1). However, several other arboviruses also cause sporadic cases and seasonal outbreaks. This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC in 2014 for WNV and other nationally notifiable arboviruses, excluding dengue. Forty-two states and the District of Columbia (DC) reported 2,205 cases of WNV disease. Of these, 1,347 (61%) were classified as WNV neuroinvasive disease (e.g., meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis), for a national incidence of 0.42 cases per 100,000 population. After WNV, the next most commonly reported cause of arboviral disease was La Crosse virus (80 cases), followed by Jamestown Canyon virus (11), St. Louis encephalitis virus (10), Powassan virus (8), and Eastern equine encephalitis virus (8). WNV and other arboviruses cause serious illness in substantial numbers of persons each year. Maintaining surveillance programs is important to help direct prevention activities.

Meteorological conditions associated with increased incidence of West Nile virus disease in the United States, 2004-2012.

West Nile virus (WNV) is a leading cause of mosquito-borne disease in the United States. Annual seasonal outbreaks vary in size and location. Predicting where and when higher than normal WNV transmission will occur can help direct limited public health resources. We developed models for the contiguous United States to identify meteorological anomalies associated with above average incidence of WNV neuroinvasive disease from 2004 to 2012. We used county-level WNV data reported to ArboNET and meteorological data from the North American Land Data Assimilation System. As a result of geographic differences in WNV transmission, we divided the United States into East and West, and 10 climate regions. Above average annual temperature was associated with increased likelihood of higher than normal WNV disease incidence, nationally and in most regions. Lower than average annual total precipitation was associated with higher disease incidence in the eastern United States, but the opposite was true in most western regions. Although multiple factors influence WNV transmission, these findings show that anomalies in temperature and precipitation are associated with above average WNV disease incidence. Readily accessible meteorological data may be used to develop predictive models to forecast geographic areas with elevated WNV disease risk before the coming season.

Comparison of the efficiency and cost of West Nile virus surveillance methods in California.

Surveillance systems for West Nile virus (WNV) combine several methods to determine the location and timing of viral amplification. The value of each surveillance method must be measured against its efficiency and costs to optimize integrated vector management and suppress WNV transmission to the human population. Here we extend previous comparisons of WNV surveillance methods by equitably comparing the most common methods after standardization on the basis of spatial sampling density and costs, and by estimating optimal levels of sampling effort for mosquito traps and sentinel chicken flocks. In general, testing for evidence of viral RNA in mosquitoes and public-reported dead birds resulted in detection of WNV approximately 2-5 weeks earlier than serological monitoring of sentinel chickens at equal spatial sampling density. For a fixed cost, testing of dead birds reported by the public was found to be the most cost effective of the methods, yielding the highest number of positive results per $1000. Increased spatial density of mosquito trapping was associated with more precise estimates of WNV infection prevalence in mosquitoes. Our findings also suggested that the most common chicken flock size of 10 birds could be reduced to six to seven without substantial reductions in timeliness or sensitivity. We conclude that a surveillance system that uses the testing of dead birds reported by the public complemented by strategically timed mosquito and chicken sampling as agency resources allow would detect viral activity efficiently in terms of effort and costs, so long as susceptible bird species that experience a high mortality rate from infection with WNV, such as corvids, are present in the area.

Chikungunya virus infections among travelers-United States, 2010-2013.

Chikungunya virus is an emerging threat to the United States because humans are amplifying hosts and competent mosquito vectors are present in many regions of the country. We identified laboratory-confirmed chikungunya virus infections with diagnostic testing performed in the United States from 2010 through 2013. We described the epidemiology of these cases and determined which were reported to ArboNET. From 2010 through 2013, 115 laboratory-confirmed chikungunya virus infections were identified. Among 55 cases with known travel history, 53 (96%) reported travel to Asia and 2 (4%) to Africa. No locally-acquired infections were identified. Six patients had detectable viremia after returning to the United States. Only 21% of identified cases were reported to ArboNET, with a median of 72 days between illness onset and reporting. Given the risk of introduction into the United States, healthcare providers and public health officials should be educated about the recognition, diagnosis, and timely reporting of chikungunya virus disease cases.

Neuroinvasive arboviral disease in the United States: 2003 to 2012.

To describe the epidemiologic and clinical syndromes associated with pediatric neuroinvasive arboviral infections among children in the United States from 2003 through 2012.

West nile virus and other arboviral diseases - United States, 2013.

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the United States. However, several other arboviruses also cause sporadic cases and seasonal outbreaks of neuroinvasive disease (i.e., meningitis, encephalitis, and acute flaccid paralysis). This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC in 2013 for WNV and other nationally notifiable arboviruses, excluding dengue. Forty-seven states and the District of Columbia reported 2,469 cases of WNV disease. Of these, 1,267 (51%) were classified as WNV neuroinvasive disease, for a national incidence of 0.40 per 100,000 population. After WNV, the next most commonly reported cause of arboviral disease was La Crosse virus (LACV) (85 cases), followed by Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV), Powassan virus (POWV), and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) (eight). WNV and other arboviruses continue to cause serious illness in substantial numbers of persons annually. Maintaining surveillance remains important to help direct and promote prevention activities.

Effect of aerial insecticide spraying on West Nile virus disease--north-central Texas, 2012.

During 2012, four north-central Texas counties experienced high West Nile virus (WNV) disease incidence. Aerial insecticide spraying was conducted in two counties. To evaluate the effect of spraying on WNV disease, we calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) in treated and untreated areas by comparing incidence before and after spraying; for unsprayed areas, before and after periods were defined by using dates from a corresponding sprayed area. In treated areas, WNV neuroinvasive disease incidence before and after spraying was 7.31/100,000 persons and 0.28/100,000 persons, respectively; the IRR was 26.42 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.42-56.20). In untreated areas, the before and after incidence was 4.80/100,000 persons and 0.45/100,000 persons, respectively; the IRR was 10.57 (95% CI: 6.11-18.28). The ratio of IRRs was 2.50 (95% CI: 0.98-6.35). Disease incidence decreased in both areas, but the relative change was greater in aerial-sprayed areas.

Lack of evidence of increased West Nile virus disease severity in the United States in 2012.

Abstract. In the United States, West Nile virus (WNV) causes annual seasonal outbreaks that fluctuate in size and scope. There was a large multistate outbreak of WNV in 2012, with more human disease cases reported nationally than any year since 2003. We evaluated national surveillance data to determine if the higher number of WNV cases reported in 2012 was associated with changes in the epidemiology or severity of disease compared with 2004-2011. Despite an increased incidence of neuroinvasive disease in 2012, national surveillance data showed no evidence of changes in epidemiology or increased disease severity compared with the previous 8 years.

Medical risk factors for severe West Nile Virus disease, United States, 2008-2010.

We conducted enhanced surveillance to identify medical risk factors for severe illness (i.e., hospitalization or death) and neuroinvasive disease (i.e., encephalitis or meningitis) among all West Nile virus disease cases reported from selected states from 2008 to 2010. Of the 1,090 case-patients included in the analysis, 708 (65%) case-patients were hospitalized, 641 (59%) case-patients had neuroinvasive disease, and 55 (5%) case-patients died. Chronic renal disease (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-12.1), history of cancer (aOR = 3.7; 95% CI = 1.8-7.5), history of alcohol abuse (aOR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.3-6.7), diabetes (aOR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.4-3.4), and hypertension (aOR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1-2.1) were independently associated with severe illness on multivariable analysis. Although the same medical conditions were independently associated with encephalitis, only hypertension was associated with meningitis. The only condition independently associated with death was immune suppression. Prevention messages should be targeted to persons with these conditions.

State health department perceived utility of and satisfaction with ArboNET, the U.S. National Arboviral Surveillance System.

We assessed the perceived utility of data collected through ArboNET, the national arboviral surveillance system, and evaluated state health department user satisfaction with system function.

Delayed mortality in a cohort of persons hospitalized with West Nile virus disease in Colorado in 2003.

Most mortality associated with West Nile virus (WNV) disease occurs during the acute or early convalescent phases of illness. However, some reports suggest mortality may be elevated for months or longer after acute illness. The objective of this study was to assess the survival of a cohort of patients hospitalized with WNV disease in Colorado in 2003 up to 4 years after illness onset. We calculated age-adjusted standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) to evaluate excess mortality, evaluated reported causes of death in those who died, and analyzed potential covariates of delayed mortality. By 1 year after illness onset, 4% of the 201 patients had died (SMR, 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-5.2), and 12% had died by 4 years after onset (SMR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3-3.0). Among those who had died, the most common immediate and contributory causes of death included pulmonary disease and cardiovascular disease; cancer, hepatic disease, and renal disease were mentioned less frequently. In multivariate analysis, age (hazard ratio [HR], 2.0 per 10-year increase; 95% CI, 1.4-2.7), autoimmune disease (HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.1-7.9), ever-use of tobacco (HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.3-7.0), encephalitis during acute WNV illness (HR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.1-6.4), and endotracheal intubation during acute illness (HR 4.8; 95% CI, 1.9-12.1) were found to be independently associated with mortality. Our finding of an approximate twofold increase in mortality for up to 3 years after acute illness reinforces the need for prevention measures against WNV infection among at-risk groups to reduce acute as well as longer-term adverse outcomes.

Adverse event reports following Japanese encephalitis vaccination in the United States, 1999-2009.

We reviewed adverse events following receipt of inactivated mouse brain-derived Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine reported to the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) from 1999 to 2009. During this period, VAERS received 300 adverse event reports following JE vaccination (24 per 100,000 doses distributed); 106 (35%) were classified as hypersensitivity reactions (8.4 per 100,000 doses) and four (1%) were classified as neurologic events (0.3 per 100,000 doses). Twenty-three (8%) reports described serious adverse events (1.8 per 100,000 doses distributed). There were no reports of encephalitis, meningitis, or Guillain-Barré syndrome. As reported previously, hypersensitivity reactions were common among persons receiving inactivated mouse brain-derived JE vaccine.

Primary causes of death in reported cases of fatal West Nile Fever, United States, 2002-2006.

Morbidity and mortality associated with human West Nile virus (WNV) infection is generally attributable to severe neurologic disease; most illness with WNV, however, is characterized by febrile illness. Although generally considered to be a benign, self-limited syndrome, some cases of West Nile Fever (WNF) have been reported as resulting in fatal outcome. We reviewed cause-of-death information for 35 cases of WNF reported as fatal to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention between 2002 and 2006, to determine underlying primary causes of death and identify groups at highest risk for fatal WNF. Fifteen were determined to be misclassified neuroinvasive disease cases; one death was medically unrelated to WNV infection. Among the remaining 23 cases, the median age was 78 years (range: 54-92), and 78% were >70 years old; the median age for all 13,482 reported cases of WNF during this time period was 47 years (range: 1 month-97 years). Cardiac (8 cases, 35%) and pulmonary complications (6 cases, 25%) were the most common primary causes of death. Underlying medical conditions among fatal WNF cases included cardiovascular disease (13; 76%), hypertension (8; 47%), and diabetes mellitus (6; 35%). Our study suggests that in some individuals, especially persons of advanced age and those with underlying medical conditions, WNF may precipitate death. The elderly are at increased risk of death from both West Nile neuroinvasive disease and WNF, which emphasizes the importance of primary prevention of WNV infection and close monitoring for cardiac and pulmonary complications in elderly patients hospitalized for WNV disease.

Surveillance for human West Nile virus disease - United States, 1999-2008.

West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the family Flaviviridae and is the leading cause of arboviral disease in the United States. An estimated 80% of WNV infections are asymptomatic. Most symptomatic persons develop an acute systemic febrile illness that often includes headache, myalgia, arthralgia, rash, or gastrointestinal symptoms. Less than 1% of infected persons develop neuroinvasive disease, which typically presents as encephalitis, meningitis, or acute flaccid paralysis.

Japanese encephalitis vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).

This report updates the 1993 recommendations by CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding the prevention of Japanese encephalitis (JE) among travelers (CDC. Inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. MMWR 1993;42[No. RR-1]). This report summarizes the epidemiology of JE, describes the two JE vaccines that are licensed in the United States, and provides recommendations for their use among travelers and laboratory workers. JE virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is the most common vaccine-preventable cause of encephalitis in Asia. JE occurs throughout most of Asia and parts of the western Pacific. Among an estimated 35,000-50,000 annual cases, 20%-30% of patients die, and 30%-50% of survivors have neurologic or psychiatric sequelae. No treatment exists. For most travelers to Asia, the risk for JE is very low but varies on the basis of destination, duration, season, and activities. JE vaccine is recommended for travelers who plan to spend a month or longer in endemic areas during the JEV transmission season and for laboratory workers with a potential for exposure to infectious JEV. JE vaccine should be considered for 1) short-term (<1 month) travelers to endemic areas during the JEV transmission season if they plan to travel outside of an urban area and will have an increased risk for JEV exposure; 2) travelers to an area with an ongoing JE outbreak; and 3) travelers to endemic areas who are uncertain of specific destinations, activities, or duration of travel. JE vaccine is not recommended for short-term travelers whose visit will be restricted to urban areas or times outside of a well-defined JEV transmission season. Two JE vaccines are licensed in the United States. An inactivated mouse brain--derived JE vaccine (JE-VAX [JE-MB]) has been licensed since 1992 to prevent JE in persons aged >or=1 year traveling to JE-endemic countries. Supplies of this vaccine are limited because production has ceased. In March 2009, an inactivated Vero cell culture-derived vaccine (IXIARO [JE-VC]) was licensed for use in persons aged >or=17 years. JE-MB is the only JE vaccine available for use in children aged 1-16 years, and remaining supplies will be reserved for use in this group.

Surveillance for West Nile virus in American white pelicans, Montana, USA, 2006-2007.

West Nile virus (WNV)-associated deaths of American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks have been recognized at various nesting colonies in the United States since 2002. We evaluated American white pelican nesting colonies in Sheridan County, Montana, USA, for an association between WNV-positive pelican carcasses and human West Nile neuroinvasive disease. Persons in counties hosting affected colonies had a 5x higher risk for disease than those in counties with unaffected colonies. We also investigated WNV infection and blood meal source among mosquitoes and pelican tissue type for greatest WNV detection efficacy in carcasses. WNV-infected Culex tarsalis mosquitoes were detected and blood-engorged Cx. tarsalis contained pelican DNA. Viral loads and detection consistency among pelican tissues were greatest in feather pulp, brain, heart, and skin. Given the risks posed to wildlife and human health, coordinated efforts among wildlife and public health authorities to monitor these pelican colonies for WNV activity are potentially useful.

Rapid assessment of mosquitoes and arbovirus activity after floods in southeastern Kansas, 2007.

A rapid assessment was conducted in July-August 2007 to determine the impact of heavy rains and early summer floods on the mosquitoes and arbovirus activity in 4 southeastern Kansas counties. During 10 days and nights of collections using different types and styles of mosquito traps, a total of 10,512 adult female mosquitoes representing 29 species were collected, including a new species record for Kansas (Psorophora mathesoni). High numbers of Aedes albopictus were collected. Over 4,000 specimens of 4 Culex species in 235 species-specific pools were tested for the presence of West Nile, St. Louis, and western equine encephalitis viruses. Thirty pools representing 3 Culex species were positive for West Nile virus (WNV). No other arboviruses were detected in the samples. Infection rates of WNV in Culex pipiens complex in 2 counties (10.7/1,000 to 22.6/1,000) and in Culex salinarius in 1 county (6.0/1,000) were sufficiently high to increase the risk of transmission to humans. The infection rate of WNV in Culex erraticus was 1.9/1,000 in one county. Two focal hot spots of intense WNV transmission were identified in Montgomery and Wilson counties, where infection rates in Cx. pipiens complex were 26/ 1,000 and 19.9/1,000, respectively. Despite confirmed evidence of WNV activity in the area, there was no increase in human cases of arboviral disease documented in the 4 counties for the remainder of 2007.

West Nile virus disease in children, United States, 1999-2007.

Although West Nile virus (WNV) disease has occurred predominantly among adults in the United States, children are also susceptible. Epidemiological data describing WNV disease in children are limited.

Epidemiology of neuroinvasive arboviral disease in the United States, 1999-2007.

From 1999-2007, the most common causes of neuroinvasive arboviral disease in the United States, after West Nile virus (WNV), were California (CAL) serogroup viruses, St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV). The CAL serogroup virus disease was primarily reported from Appalachia and the upper Midwest, SLEV disease from southern states, and EEEV disease from areas along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Children accounted for 88% of CAL serogroup virus disease, whereas 75% of SLEV disease occurred among older adults. The EEEV disease had the highest case-fatality rate (42%). The incidence of CAL serogroup virus and EEEV disease remained stable before and after the detection of WNV in the United States in 1999. The SLEV disease declined 3-fold after 1999; however, SLEV disease has occurred in sporadic epidemics that make trends difficult to interpret. The CAL serogroup virus, SLEV, and EEEV disease are persistent public health concerns in the United States warranting ongoing prevention efforts.

Adverse event reports following yellow fever vaccination.

Yellow fever (YF) vaccine has been used for prevention of YF since 1937 with over 500 million doses administered. However, rare reports of severe adverse events following vaccination have raised concerns about the vaccine's safety. We reviewed reports of adverse events following YF vaccination reported to the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) from 2000 to 2006. We used estimates of age and sex distribution of administered doses obtained from a 2006 survey of authorized vaccine providers to calculate age- and sex-specific reporting rates of all serious adverse events (SAE), anaphylaxis, YF vaccine-associated neurotropic disease, and YF vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease. Reporting rates of SAEs were substantially higher in males and in persons aged > or =60 years. These findings reinforce the generally acceptable safety profile of YF vaccine, but highlight the importance of physician and traveler education regarding the risks and benefits of YF vaccination, particularly for travelers > or =60 years of age. Vaccination should be limited to persons traveling to areas where the risk of YF is expected to exceed the risk of serious adverse events after vaccination, or if not medically contraindicated, where national regulations require proof of vaccination to prevent introduction of YF.

West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease incidence in the United States, 2002-2006.

As the geographic range of reported human West Nile virus (WNV) disease has expanded across the United States, seasonal transmission and outbreaks have persisted over several years in many areas of the country. West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease (WNND) case reports from 2002 to 2006 were reviewed to determine which areas of the country have the highest reported cumulative incidence and whether those areas have had consistently high annual incidence. During the 5-year period examined, 9632 cases of WNND were reported nationwide. The cumulative incidence of WNND ranged from 0.2 to 32.2 per 100,000 population by state and from 0.1 to 241.2 per 100,000 population by county. States and counties with the highest cumulative incidence were primarily located in the northern Great Plains. States with consistently high annual incidence included South Dakota, North Dakota, Wyoming, New Mexico, Mississippi, Nebraska, Louisiana, and Colorado. All of these states, with the exception of New Mexico, were also among the states with the highest cumulative incidence. Counties with repeatedly high annual incidence were also primarily in the Great Plains and mid-South. The risk of WNND appears to be highest in areas where the primary WNV vectors are Culex tarsalis and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

Behavior modification following a diagnosis of hepatitis C infection.

To determine the extent of postdiagnosis counseling and to characterize behavior before and after diagnosis of hepatitis C infection.