A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Jeremi Leasure - Top 30 Publications

Changes in foraminal area with anterior decompression versus keyhole foraminotomy in the cervical spine: a biomechanical investigation.

OBJECTIVE Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with or without partial uncovertebral joint resection (UVR) and posterior keyhole foraminotomy are established operative procedures to treat cervical disc degeneration and radiculopathy. Studies have demonstrated reliable results with each procedure, but none have compared the change in neuroforaminal area between indirect and direct decompression techniques. The purpose of this study was to determine which cervical decompression method most consistently increases neuroforaminal area and how that area is affected by neck position. METHODS Eight human cervical functional spinal units (4 each of C5-6 and C6-7) underwent sequential decompression. Each level received the following surgical treatment: bilateral foraminotomy, ACDF, ACDF + partial UVR, and foraminotomy + ACDF. Multidirectional pure moment flexibility testing combined with 3D C-arm imaging was performed after each procedure to measure the minimum cross-sectional area of each foramen in 3 different neck positions: neutral, flexion, and extension. RESULTS Neuroforaminal area increased significantly with foraminotomy versus intact in all positions. These area measurements did not change in the ACDF group through flexion-extension. A significant decrease in area was observed for ACDF in extension (40 mm2) versus neutral (55 mm2). Foraminotomy + ACDF did not significantly increase area compared with foraminotomy in any position. The UVR procedure did not produce any changes in area through flexion-extension. CONCLUSIONS All procedures increased neuroforaminal area. Foraminotomy and foraminotomy + ACDF produced the greatest increase in area and also maintained the area in extension more than anterior-only procedures. The UVR procedure did not significantly alter the area compared with ACDF alone. With a stable cervical spine, foraminotomy may be preferable to directly decompress the neuroforamen; however, ACDF continues to play an important role for indirect decompression and decompression of more centrally located herniated discs. These findings pertain to bony stenosis of the neuroforamen and may not apply to soft disc herniation. The key points of this study are as follows. Both ACDF and foraminotomy increase the foraminal space. Foraminotomy was most successful in maintaining these increases during neck motion. Partial UVR was not a significant improvement over ACDF alone. Foraminotomy may be more efficient at decompressing the neuroforamen. Results should be taken into consideration only with stable spines.

The Pedicles Are Not the Densest Regions of the Lumbar Vertebrae: Implications for Bone Quality Assessment and Surgical Treatment Strategy.

Cadaver study.

Multidirectional Tibial Tubercle Transfer Technique: Rationale and Biomechanical Investigation.

This study describes a new surgical technique to transfer the tibial tubercle, explains the rationale for its development, and reports the results of initial biomechanical testing. The design goals were to create a tibial tubercle osteotomy that would provide equivalent or better initial fixation compared with traditional techniques, yet would be more flexible, reproducible, accurate, less invasive, and safer. The results of the biomechanical analysis suggest that initial fixation with this novel tubercle transfer technique is as strong as traditional Elmslie-Trillat and anteromedialization procedures.

Validation of a Russian Language Oswestry Disability Index Questionnaire.

Study Design Retrospective reliability and validity study. Objective To validate a recently translated Russian language version of the Oswestry Disability Index (R-ODI) using standardized methods detailed from previous validations in other languages. Methods We included all subjects who were seen in our spine surgery clinic, over the age of 18, and fluent in the Russian language. R-ODI was translated by six bilingual people and combined into a consensus version. R-ODI and visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaires for leg and back pain were distributed to subjects during both their initial and follow-up visits. Test validity, stability, and internal consistency were measured using standardized psychometric methods. Results Ninety-seven subjects participated in the study. No change in the meaning of the questions on R-ODI was noted with translation from English to Russian. There was a significant positive correlation between R-ODI and VAS scores for both the leg and back during both the initial and follow-up visits (p < 0.01 for all). The instrument was shown to have high internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.82) and moderate test-retest stability (interclass correlation coefficient = 0.70). Conclusions The R-ODI is both valid and reliable for use among the Russian-speaking population in the United States.

Orthopedic Surgeons' Management of Elective Surgery for Patients Who Use Nicotine.

Despite significant research documenting the detrimental effects of tobacco, the orthopedic literature lacks evidence regarding how surgeons alter their management of elective surgery when patients use nicotine. To better understand how patients' use of nicotine influences orthopedic surgeons' pre- and postoperative management of elective surgery, a 9-question paper survey was distributed at the 2012 annual meeting of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons among attending US orthopedic surgeons, including general orthopedists and specialty-trained orthopedic surgeons. Survey questions focused on attitudes and practice management regarding patients who use nicotine. Using a chi-square test, no statistically significant variation was observed between subspecialists and general orthopedists or among different subspecialties. Ninety-eight percent of the orthopedic surgeons surveyed counseled tobacco users about the adverse effects of nicotine. However, approximately half of all of the respondents spent less than 5 minutes on perioperative nicotine counseling. Forty-one percent of all of the respondents never delayed elective surgery because of a patient's nicotine use, followed closely by 39% delaying surgery for less than 3 months. Subspecialty had little influence on how orthopedic surgeons managed nicotine users. The high rate of counseling on the adverse effects of nicotine suggested agreement regarding the detrimental effects of smoking. However, the study population infrequently delayed surgery or used smoking cessation measures. Studies are needed to determine why few surgeons frequently alter the management of nicotine users and what modifications in orthopedic practice could improve outcomes for these patients. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(1):e90-e94.].

Prophylactic Cerclage With Braided Polyblend Suture During Femoral Broaching.

Femur fractures occur during broaching and impaction of the implant during hip arthroplasty. Prophylactic cerclage of the proximal femur with braided cable and steel wire has been shown to decrease hoop stresses and has been posited as a way to decrease the incidence of intraoperative fracture. In this biomechanical study, the authors investigated the strain across the proximal femur during broaching after the application of stainless steel wire, comparing it with that for braided polyblend suture. Nine femur models were prepared, and strain gauges were applied to each of 3 groups. The control group received no cerclage, the second group received a double loop of suture, and the third group received a single loop of steel wire. A broach was firmly seated in each femur and sequentially increasing axial loads were applied at 1000 N, 2000 N, 3000 N, 4000 N, 5000 N, and 6000 N and to failure. Strain at all loads was lower in both cerclage groups than in the control group. Strain was 28.6%±12.4% lower in the suture group than in the control group (P=.0003). Strain was 30.8%±10.7% lower in the steel wire group than in the control group (P=.0011). There was no statistically significant difference between suture cerclage and steel wire cerclage (P=.7367). When used for prophylactic cerclage of the proximal femur, braided polyblend suture increases hoop stress resistance, decreases strain, and may play a clinically useful role in decreasing intraoperative proximal femur fractures during hip arthroplasty. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(6):e1183-e1187.].

Biomechanical demands on posterior fusion instrumentation during lordosis restoration procedures.

OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to investigate the forces placed on posterior fusion instrumentation by 3 commonly used intraoperative techniques to restore lumbar lordosis: 1) cantilever bending; 2) in situ bending; and 3) compression and/or distraction of screws along posterior fusion rods. METHODS Five cadaveric torsos were instrumented with pedicle screws at the L1-5 levels. Specimens underwent each of the 3 lordosis restoration procedures. The pedicle screw pullout force was monitored in real time via strain gauges that were mounted unilaterally at each level. The degree of correction was noted through fluoroscopic imaging. The peak loads experienced on the screws during surgery, total demand on instrumentation, and resting loads after corrective maneuvers were measured. RESULTS A mean overall lordotic correction of 10.9 ± 4.7° was achieved. No statistically significant difference in lordotic correction was observed between restoration procedures. In situ bending imparted the largest loads intraoperatively with an average of 1060 ± 599.9 N, followed by compression/distraction (971 ± 534.1 N) and cantilever bending (705 ± 413.0 N). In situ bending produced the largest total demand and postoperative loads at L-1 (1879 ± 1064.1 and 487 ± 118.8 N, respectively), which were statistically higher than cantilever bending and compression/distraction (786 ± 272.1 and 138 ± 99.2 N, respectively). CONCLUSIONS In situ bending resulted in the highest mechanical demand on posterior lumbar instrumentation, as well as the largest postoperative loads at L-1. These results suggest that the forces generated with in situ bending indicate a greater chance of intraoperative instrumentation failure and postoperative proximal pedicle screw pullout when compared with cantilever bending and/or compression/distraction options. The results are aimed at optimizing correction and fusion strategies in lordosis restoration cases.

A Unilateral Cervical Spinal Cord Contusion Injury Model in Non-Human Primates (Macaca mulatta).

The development of a non-human primate (NHP) model of spinal cord injury (SCI) based on mechanical and computational modeling is described. We scaled up from a rodent model to a larger primate model using a highly controllable, friction-free, electronically-driven actuator to generate unilateral C6-C7 spinal cord injuries. Graded contusion lesions with varying degrees of functional recovery, depending upon pre-set impact parameters, were produced in nine NHPs. Protocols and pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to optimize the predictability of outcomes by matching impact protocols to the size of each animal's spinal canal, cord, and cerebrospinal fluid space. Post-operative MRI confirmed lesion placement and provided information on lesion volume and spread for comparison with histological measures. We evaluated the relationships between impact parameters, lesion measures, and behavioral outcomes, and confirmed that these relationships were consistent with our previous studies in the rat. In addition to providing multiple univariate outcome measures, we also developed an integrated outcome metric describing the multivariate cervical SCI syndrome. Impacts at the higher ranges of peak force produced highly lateralized and enduring deficits in multiple measures of forelimb and hand function, while lower energy impacts produced early weakness followed by substantial recovery but enduring deficits in fine digital control (e.g., pincer grasp). This model provides a clinically relevant system in which to evaluate the safety and, potentially, the efficacy of candidate translational therapies.

Development of a surgical skills curriculum for the training and assessment of manual skills in orthopedic surgical residents.

To develop and conduct a pilot study of a curriculum of 4 surrogate bone training modules to assess and track progress in basic orthopedic manual skills outside the operating room.

Gait-simulating fatigue loading analysis and sagittal alignment failure of spinal pelvic reconstruction after total sacrectomy: comparison of 3 techniques.

Reconstruction after total sacrectomy is a critical component of malignant sacral tumor resection, permitting early mobilization and maintenance of spinal pelvic alignment. However, implant loosening, graft migration, and instrumentation breakage remain major problems. Traditional techniques have used interiliac femoral allograft, but more modern methods have used fibular or cage struts from the ilium to the L-5 endplate or sacral body replacement with transiliac bars anchored to cages to the L-5 endplate. This study compares the biomechanical stability under gait-simulating fatigue loading of the 3 current methods.

Biomechanical evaluation of an interfacet joint decompression and stabilization system.

A majority of the middle-aged population exhibit cervical spondylosis that may require decompression and fusion of the affected level. Minimally invasive cervical fusion is an attractive option for decreasing operative time, morbidity, and mortality rates. A novel interfacet joint spacer (DTRAX facet screw system, Providence Medical) promises minimally invasive deployment resulting in decompression of the neuroforamen and interfacet fusion. The present study investigates the effectiveness of the device in minimizing intervertebral motion to promote fusion, decompression of the nerve root during bending activity, and performance of the implant to adhere to anatomy during repeated bending loads. We observed flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation resonant overshoot mode (ROM) in cadaver models of c-spine treated with the interfacet joint spacer (FJ spacer) as stand-alone and supplementing anterior plating. The FJ spacer was deployed bilaterally at single levels. Specimens were placed at the limit of ROM in flexion, extension, axial bending, and lateral bending. 3D images of the foramen were taken and postprocessed to quantify changes in foraminal area. Stand-alone spacer specimens were subjected to 30,000 cycles at 2 Hz of nonsimultaneous flexion-extension and lateral bending under compressive load and X-ray imaged at regular cycle intervals for quantitative measurements of device loosening. The stand-alone FJ spacer increased specimen stiffness in all directions except extension. 86% of all deployments resulted in some level of foraminal distraction. The rate of effective distraction was maintained in flexed, extended, and axially rotated postures. Two specimens demonstrated no detectable implant loosening (<0.25 mm). Three showed unilateral subclinical loosening (0.4 mm maximum), and one had subclinical loosening bilaterally (0.5 mm maximum). Results of our study are comparable to previous investigations into the stiffness of other stand-alone minimally invasive technologies. The FJ spacer system effectively increased stiffness of the affected level comparable to predicate systems. Results of this study indicate the FJ spacer increases foraminal area in the cervical spine, and decompression is maintained during bending activities. Clinical studies will be necessary to determine whether the magnitude of decompression observed in this cadaveric study will effectively treat cervical radiculopathy; however, results of this study, taken in context of successful decompression treatments in the lumbar spine, are promising for the continued development of this product. Results of this biomechanical study are encouraging for the continued investigation of this device in animal and clinical trials, as they suggest the device is well fixated and mechanically competent.

Biomechanical comparison of interference screw and cortical button with screw hybrid technique for distal biceps brachii tendon repair.

Various fixation techniques have been described for ruptured distal biceps tendons. The authors hypothesized that no significant differences would be found between the mean failure strength, maximum strength, and stiffness of the interference screw and hybrid technique. Fourteen fresh-frozen human cadaveric elbows were prepared. Specimens were randomized to either interference screw or hybrid cortical button with screw fixation. The tendon was pulled at a rate of 4 mm/s until failure. Failure strength, maximum strength, and stiffness were measured and compared. Failure strength, maximum strength, and stiffness were 294±81.9 N, 294±82.1 N, and 64.4±40.5 N/mm, respectively, for the interference screw technique and 333±129 N, 383±121 N, and 56.2±40.5 N/mm, respectively, for the hybrid technique. No statistically significant difference existed between the screw and hybrid technique in failure strength, maximum strength, or stiffness (P>.05). The interference screws primarily failed by pullout of the screw and tendon, whereas in the hybrid technique, failure occurred with screw pullout followed by tearing of the biceps tendon. The results suggest that this hybrid technique is nearly as strong and stiff as the interference screw alone. Although the hybrid technique facilitates tensioning of the reconstructed tendon, the addition of the cortical button did not significantly improve the failure strength of the interference screw alone.

Differences in knee joint kinematics and forces after posterior cruciate retaining and stabilized total knee arthroplasty.

Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) retaining (CR) and -sacrificing (PS) total knee arthroplasties (TKA) are widely-used to treat osteoarthritis of the knee joint. The PS design substitutes the function of the PCL with a cam-spine mechanism which may produce adverse changes to joint kinematics and kinetics.

Effect of severity of rod contour on posterior rod failure in the setting of lumbar pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO): a biomechanical study.

Rod failure has been reported clinically in pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) to correct flat back deformity.

The effect of biceps adhesions on glenohumeral range of motion: a cadaveric study.

Previous studies have demonstrated that the humerus slides along the long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT). Blocking this motion may result in decreased glenohumeral (GH) range of motion (ROM). The goal of the study was to characterize the excursion of the LHBT and measure the effect of biceps adhesions on GH ROM.

Immediate changes of bone density caused by the implantation of a femoral stem--a DEXA study. [email protected]

Considerable immediate periprosthetic bone density changes after implantation of femoral stems have been observed comparing DEXA measurements taken pre- and post-operatively. This is important in relation to the interpretation of DEXA studies. We analysed these density changes under standardised experimental conditions. Five human femora were implanted with a custom made femoral stem and ten femora with a standard cementless prosthesis. Densitometry was performed at various stages of implantation. Following rasping only slight density changes were noted (-2.7% to +0.7%). Comparing post-implantation and pre-operative measurements, all custom made stems with a proximal press-fit demonstrated clear increases in proximal periprosthetic bone density of +11% and +14%. In contrast, the standard prosthesis with a distal press-fit showed a loss of -5% and -2% in the proximal zones. Measurements following removal of the implants demonstrated hardly any density changes (0% to -4%) compared to the pre-operative measurements. We concluded that compacting of trabecular bone or bone loss due to rasping are not the main causes of density changes. Substantial measuring errors exist. For examination of periprosthetic bone density changes, pre-operative initial measurements should not be used as a baseline for comparison. Studies should commence with an immediate postoperative measurement.

Mechanical properties of human fetal talus.

Mechanical characterization of human cartilage anlagen is required to effectively model congenital musculoskeletal deformities. Such modeling can effectively explore the effect of treatment procedures and potentially suggest enhanced treatment methods. Using serial MRI, we have noted shape changes of the cartilaginous hindfoot anlagen in patients with clubfoot, suggesting they are soft and deformable. We therefore determined the stress relaxation behavior of cartilage plugs obtained from third-trimester stillborn fetuses in unconfined and confined compression geometries. The material parameters determined were the aggregate modulus H(A) = 0.15 +/- 0.07 MPa, Poisson's ratio nu = 0.4 +/- 0.06, Young's modulus E(s) = 0.06 +/- 0.03 MPa, and permeability coefficients k(0) = 2.01 +/- 0.8 x 10(-14) m(4) N(-1) s(-1) and M = 4.6 +/- 1.0. As compared with adult articular cartilage, stiffness was an order of magnitude lower than the values reported in the literature, suggesting the relative softness of the tissue, and the permeability was an order of magnitude higher, indicating relative ease of flow in the tissue. Poisson's ratio also was close to the higher end of the range reported in previous studies. Such material is expected to deform and relax to larger extents. These findings are consistent with the deformability of the cartilage anlagen during manipulation and casting for treatment of clubfoot.