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Jennifer M Nelson - Top 30 Publications

Public Opinions About Infant Feeding in the United States.

Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first 6 months of life. However, many barriers to breastfeeding exist. We examine public opinions about the benefits of breastfeeding and the infant health risks associated with formula feeding.

Provision of Non-breast Milk Supplements to Healthy Breastfed Newborns in U.S. Hospitals, 2009 to 2013.

Introduction Breastfed newborns are often given non-breast milk supplements in the hospital, which can negatively impact breastfeeding outcomes. Efforts to improve maternity care practices include reducing supplementation of breastfed newborns. Methods The Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC) survey is administered every 2 years to all hospitals in the United States and territories with registered maternity beds. We examined provision of non-breast milk supplements to healthy, full-term breastfed newborns from 2009 to 2013. Results Hospitals that provided non-breast milk supplements to at least 50 % of breastfed newborns decreased from 31.5 % in 2009 to 23.3 % in 2013. Among hospitals providing any supplements, there was no change in the percent that supplemented with infant formula; whereas, supplementing with water declined from 8.8 % in 2009 to 4.2 % in 2013 and with glucose water from 23.4 % to 12.5 %, respectively. In 2013, 64.9 % of breastfed infants were supplemented with formula for "mother's choice," 25.0 % for "doctor's orders," and 8.7 % for "nurse's recommendation." Discussion Despite improvements in maternity care practices, nearly one-fourth of hospitals are still providing at least 50 % of healthy, full-term breastfed newborns with non-breast milk supplements. While there has been no change in the proportion of hospitals providing infant formula supplements, the proportion supplementing with water and glucose water have declined. Additional education and support of mothers during the early post-partum period and training of physicians may address reasons breastfed infants are supplemented.

Lactation and Maternal Cardio-Metabolic Health.

Researchers hypothesize that pregnancy and lactation are part of a continuum, with lactation meant to "reset" the adverse metabolic profile that develops as a part of normal pregnancy, and that when lactation does not occur, women maintain an elevated risk of cardio-metabolic diseases. Several large prospective and retrospective studies, mostly from the United States and other industrialized countries, have examined the associations between lactation and cardio-metabolic outcomes. Less evidence exists regarding an association of lactation with maternal postpartum weight status and dyslipidemia, whereas more evidence exists for an association with diabetes, hypertension, and subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease.

Zika Virus Disease: A CDC Update for Pediatric Health Care Providers.

Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus discovered in Africa in 1947. Most persons with Zika virus infection are asymptomatic; symptoms when present are generally mild and include fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis. Since early 2015, Zika virus has spread rapidly through the Americas, with local transmission identified in 31 countries and territories as of February 29, 2016, including several US territories. All age groups are susceptible to Zika virus infection, including children. Maternal-fetal transmission of Zika virus has been documented; evidence suggests that congenital Zika virus infection is associated with microcephaly and other adverse pregnancy and infant outcomes. Perinatal transmission has been reported in 2 cases; 1 was asymptomatic, and the other had thrombocytopenia and a rash. Based on limited information, Zika virus infection in children is mild, similar to that in adults. The long-term sequelae of congenital, perinatal, and pediatric Zika virus infection are largely unknown. No vaccine to prevent Zika virus infection is available, and treatment is supportive. The primary means of preventing Zika virus infection is prevention of mosquito bites in areas with local Zika virus transmission. Given the possibility of limited local transmission of Zika virus in the continental United States and frequent travel from affected countries to the United States, US pediatric health care providers need to be familiar with Zika virus infection. This article reviews the Zika virus, its epidemiologic characteristics, clinical presentation, laboratory testing, treatment, and prevention to assist providers in the evaluation and management of children with possible Zika virus infection.

Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Infants and Children with Possible Zika Virus Infection--United States, February 2016.

CDC has updated its interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in areas with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy and expanded guidelines to include infants and children with possible acute Zika virus disease. This update contains a new recommendation for routine care for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in areas with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy but did not receive Zika virus testing, when the infant has a normal head circumference, normal prenatal and postnatal ultrasounds (if performed), and normal physical examination. Acute Zika virus disease should be suspected in an infant or child aged <18 years who 1) traveled to or resided in an affected area within the past 2 weeks and 2) has ≥2 of the following manifestations: fever, rash, conjunctivitis, or arthralgia. Because maternal-infant transmission of Zika virus during delivery is possible, acute Zika virus disease should also be suspected in an infant during the first 2 weeks of life 1) whose mother traveled to or resided in an affected area within 2 weeks of delivery and 2) who has ≥2 of the following manifestations: fever, rash, conjunctivitis, or arthralgia. Evidence suggests that Zika virus illness in children is usually mild. As an arboviral disease, Zika virus disease is nationally notifiable. Health care providers should report suspected cases of Zika virus disease to their local, state, or territorial health departments to arrange testing and so that action can be taken to reduce the risk for local Zika virus transmission. As new information becomes available, these guidelines will be updated:

Trends of US hospitals distributing infant formula packs to breastfeeding mothers, 2007 to 2013.

To examine trends in the prevalence of hospitals and birth centers (hereafter, hospitals) distributing infant formula discharge packs to breastfeeding mothers in the United States from 2007 to 2013.

Weight management-related assessment and counseling by primary care providers in an area of high childhood obesity prevalence: current practices and areas of opportunity.

Childhood obesity in Georgia exceeds the national rate. The state's pediatric primary care providers (PCPs) are well positioned to support behavior change, but little is known about provider perceptions and practices regarding this role.

Brief training in patient-centered counseling for healthy weight management increases counseling self-efficacy and goal setting among pediatric primary care providers: results of a pilot program.

We hypothesized that training in patient-centered counseling would improve self-efficacy and quality of weight management-related counseling provided by pediatric primary care physicians (PCPs).

Predictors of cognitive enhancement after training in preschoolers from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds.

The association between socioeconomic status and child cognitive development, and the positive impact of interventions aimed at optimizing cognitive performance, are well-documented. However, few studies have examined how specific socio-environmental factors may moderate the impact of cognitive interventions among poor children. In the present study, we examined how such factors predicted cognitive trajectories during the preschool years, in two samples of children from Argentina, who participated in two cognitive training programs (CTPs) between the years 2002 and 2005: the School Intervention Program (SIP; N = 745) and the Cognitive Training Program (CTP; N = 333). In both programs children were trained weekly for 16 weeks and tested before and after the intervention using a battery of tasks assessing several cognitive control processes (attention, inhibitory control, working memory, flexibility and planning). After applying mixed model analyses, we identified sets of socio-environmental predictors that were associated with higher levels of pre-intervention cognitive control performance and with increased improvement in cognitive control from pre- to post-intervention. Child age, housing conditions, social resources, parental occupation and family composition were associated with performance in specific cognitive domains at baseline. Housing conditions, social resources, parental occupation, family composition, maternal physical health, age, group (intervention/control) and the number of training sessions were related to improvements in specific cognitive skills from pre- to post-training.

Antimicrobial and antimotility agent use in persons with shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 infection in FoodNet Sites.

Antimicrobial and antimotility agents are not recommended for the treatment of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 infection. In our study, many persons with Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157 infection took antimicrobial (62%) and antimotility agents (32%); 43 (29%) of 146 reported commencing antimicrobial treatment after laboratory confirmation. Efforts are needed to promote practice guidelines.

FoodNet survey of food use and practices in long-term care facilities.

Foodborne illness is an important problem among the elderly. One risk factor for foodborne illness and diarrhea-associated mortality among the elderly is residence in a long-term care facility (LTCF); thus, these facilities must implement measures to ensure safe food. To assess safe food practices, knowledge, and policies, we used a mailed, self-administered questionnaire to survey food service directors at LTCFs that were certified to receive Medicare or Medicaid at eight Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) sites. Surveys were distributed to 1,630 LTCFs; 55% (865 of 1,568) of eligible facilities returned a completed questionnaire. Only three LTCFs completely followed national recommendations for prevention of Listeria monocytogenes contamination. Nine percent of LTCFs reported serving soft cheeses made from unpasteurized milk. Most LTCFs reported routinely serving ready-to-eat deli meats; however, few reported always heating deli meats until steaming hot before serving (only 19% of the LTCFs that served roast beef, 13% of those that served turkey, and 11% of those that served ham). Most LTCFs (92%) used pasteurized liquid egg products, but only 36% used pasteurized whole shell eggs. Regular whole shell eggs were used by 62% of facilities. Few LTCFs used irradiated ground beef (7%) or irradiated poultry products (6%). The results of this survey allowed us to identify several opportunities for prevention of foodborne illnesses in LTCFs. Some safety measures, such as the use of pasteurized and irradiated foods, were underutilized, and many facilities were not adhering to national recommendations on the avoidance of certain foods considered high risk for elderly persons. Enhanced educational efforts focusing on food safety practices and aimed at LTCFs are needed.

Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter species and the withdrawal of fluoroquinolones from use in poultry: a public health success story.

Campylobacter species cause 1.4 million infections each year in the United States. Fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin) are commonly used in adults with Campylobacter infection and other infections. Fluoroquinolones (e.g., enrofloxacin) are also used in veterinary medicine. Human infections with fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter species have become increasingly common and are associated with consumption of poultry. These findings, along with other data, prompted the US Food and Drug Administration to propose the withdrawal of fluoroquinolone use in poultry in 2000. A lengthy legal hearing concluded with an order to withdraw enrofloxacin from use in poultry (effective in September 2005). Clinicians are likely to continue to encounter patients with fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter infection and other enteric infection because of the continued circulation of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter species in poultry flocks and in persons returning from foreign travel who have acquired a fluoroquinolone-resistant enteric infection while abroad. Judicious use of fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobial agents in human and veterinary medicine is essential to preserve the efficacy of these important chemotherapeutic agents.

High prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among Shigella isolates in the United States tested by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System from 1999 to 2002.

Shigella spp. infect approximately 450,000 persons annually in the United States, resulting in over 6,000 hospitalizations. Since 1999, the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) for Enteric Bacteria has tested every 10th Shigella isolate from 16 state or local public health laboratories for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobial agents. From 1999 to 2002, NARMS tested 1,604 isolates. Among 1,598 isolates identified to species level, 1,278 (80%) were Shigella sonnei, 295 (18%) were Shigella flexneri, 18 (1%) were Shigella boydii, and 7 (0.4%) were Shigella dysenteriae. Overall, 1,251 (78%) were resistant to ampicillin and 744 (46%) were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX). Prevalence of TMP-SMX- or ampicillin- and TMP-SMX-resistant Shigella sonnei isolates varied by geographic region, with lower rates in the South and Midwest regions (TMP-SMX resistance, 27% and 30%, respectively; ampicillin and TMP-SMX resistance, 25% and 22%, respectively) and higher rates in the East and West regions (TMP-SMX resistance, 66% and 80%, respectively; ampicillin and TMP-SMX resistance, 54% and 65%, respectively). Nineteen isolates (1%) were resistant to nalidixic acid (1% of S. sonnei and 2% of S. flexneri isolates); 12 (63%) of these isolates had decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. One S. flexneri isolate was resistant to ciprofloxacin. All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone. Since 1986, resistance to ampicillin and TMP-SMX has dramatically increased. Shigella isolates in the United States remain susceptible to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone.

A large, multiple-restaurant outbreak of infection with Shigella flexneri serotype 2a traced to tomatoes.

Foodborne outbreaks of Shigella infection are uncommon and tomatoes are an unusual vehicle. We describe a large, multiple-restaurant outbreak of Shigella flexneri serotype 2a infection that was associated with tomatoes.

Beta-lactam resistance and Enterobacteriaceae, United States.

Extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) are an important drug class for treating severe Salmonella infections. We screened the human collection from the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System 2000 for ESC resistance mechanisms. Of non-Typhi Salmonella tested, 3.2% (44/1,378) contained blaCMY genes. Novel findings included blaCMY-positive Escherichia coli O157:H7 and a blaSHV-positive Salmonella isolate. CMY-positive isolates showed a ceftriaxone MIC > or =2 microg/mL.

Prolonged diarrhea due to ciprofloxacin-resistant campylobacter infection.

Campylobacter causes >1 million infections annually in the United States. Fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin) are used to treat Campylobacter infections in adults. Although human infections with ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter have become increasingly common, the human health consequences of such infections are not well described.

Antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter strains, United States, 1997-2001.

We summarize antimicrobial resistance surveillance data in human and chicken isolates of Campylobacter. Isolates were from a sentinel county study from 1989 through 1990 and from nine state health departments participating in National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System for enteric bacteria (NARMS) from 1997 through 2001. None of the 297 C. jejuni or C. coli isolates tested from 1989 through 1990 was ciprofloxacin-resistant. From 1997 through 2001, a total of 1,553 human Campylobacter isolates were characterized: 1,471 (95%) were C. jejuni, 63 (4%) were C. coli, and 19 (1%) were other Campylobacter species. The prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter was 13% (28 of 217) in 1997 and 19% (75 of 384) in 2001; erythromycin resistance was 2% (4 of 217) in 1997 and 2% (8 of 384) in 2001. Ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter was isolated from 10% of 180 chicken products purchased from grocery stores in three states in 1999. Ciprofloxacin resistance has emerged among Campylobacter since 1990 and has increased in prevalence since 1997.

Public health consequences of use of antimicrobial agents in food animals in the United States.

The use of antimicrobial agents in food animals has caused concern regarding the impact these uses have on human health. Use of antimicrobial agents in animals and humans results in the emergence and dissemination of resistant bacteria. Resistant bacteria from food animals may be passed through the food chain to humans resulting in resistant infections. Increasing resistance to antimicrobial agents that are important in the treatment of human diseases, such as fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins for the treatment of Salmonella and Campylobacter infections, has significant public health implications. Efforts to mitigate the effects of increasing resistance require collaboration by several partners, including the farming, veterinary, medical, and public health communities.

Expression of a mutant maize gene in the ventral leaf epidermis is sufficient to signal a switch of the leaf's dorsoventral axis.

Maize leaves are initiated from the shoot apex with an inherent leaf dorsoventral polarity; the leaf surface closest to the meristem is the adaxial (upper, dorsal) surface whereas the opposite leaf surface is the abaxial (lower, ventral) surface. The Rolled leaf1 (Rld1) semi-dominant maize mutations affect dorsoventral patterning by causing adaxialization of abaxial leaf regions. This adaxialization is sometimes associated with abaxialization of the adaxial leaf regions, which constitutes a "switch". Dosage analysis indicates Rld1 mutants are antimorphs. We mapped Rld1's action to a single cell layer using a mosaic analysis and show Rld1 acts non cell-autonomously along the dorsoventral axis. The presence of Rld1 mutant product in the abaxial epidermis is necessary and sufficient to induce the Rolled leaf1 phenotype within the lower epidermis as well as in other leaf layers along the dorsoventral axis. These results support a model for the involvement of wild-type RLD1 in the maintenance of dorsoventral features of the leaf. In addition, they demonstrate the abaxial epidermis sends/receives a cell fate determining signal to/from the adaxial epidermis and controls the dorsoventral patterning of the maize leaf.